Argumentative Essay Topics on Technology and Social Media

Argumentative Essay Topics on Technology and Social Media

  1. Are the Web Filters at Your School Too Restrictive?
  2. Does Technology Make Us More Alone?
  3. Are You Distracted by Technology?
  4. Do Apps Help You or Just Waste Your Time?
  5. Do You Spend Too Much Time on Smart Phones Playing ‘Stupid Games’?
  6. Has Facebook Lost Its Edge?
  7. Does Facebook Ever Make You Feel Bad?
  8. Should What You Say on Facebook Be Grounds for Getting Fired?
  9. Should People Be Allowed to Obscure Their Identities Online
  10. Is Online Learning as Good as Face-to-Face Learning?
  11. Do Your Teachers Use Technology Well?
  12. Should Tablet Computers Become the Primary Way Students Learn in Class?
  13. Can Cellphones Be Educational Tools?
  14. Should Computer Games Be Used for Classroom Instruction?
  15. How Young Is Too Young for an iPhone?
  16. Should Companies Collect Information About You?
  17. Would You Trade Your Paper Books for Digital Versions?
  18. Are Digital Photographs Too Plentiful to Be Meaningful?
  19. Do You Worry We Are Filming Too Much?
  20. Would You Want a Pair of Google’s Computer Glasses?
  21. How Would You Feel About a Computer Grading Your Essays?
  22. What Role Will Robots Play in Our Future?
  23. How Many Text Messages Are Too Many?
  24. How Much Do You Trust Online Reviews?


Argumentative Essay Topics On Education

  1. Is Cheating Getting Worse?
  2. Should Students Be Able to Grade Their Teachers?
  3. Does Your School Hand Out Too Many A’s?
  4. Should Middle School Students Be Drug Tested?
  5. Should Reading and Math Be Taught in Gym Class Too?
  6. How Seriously Should We Take Standardized Tests?
  7. How Well Do You Think Standardized Tests Measure Your Abilities?
  8. Do You Spend Too Much Time Preparing for Standardized Tests?
  9. Should Schools Offer Cash Bonuses for Good Test Scores?
  10. Should We Rethink How Long Students Spend in High School?
  11. Do Schools Provide Students With Enough Opportunities to Be Creative?
  12. What Are You Really Learning at School?
  13. How Important Is Arts Education?
  14. Does Gym Help Students Perform Better in All Their Classes?
  15. Who Should Be Able to See Students’ Records?
  16. Are Children of Illegal Immigrants Entitled to a Public Education?
  17. What Is the Right Amount of Group Work in School?
  18. Is Your School Day Too Short?
  19. Do You Think a Longer School Calendar Is a Good Idea?
  20. Should the Dropout Age Be Raised?
  21. Should Students Be Allowed to Skip Senior Year of High School?
  22. How Does Your School Deal With Students Who Misbehave?
  23. Should Schools Be Allowed to Use Corporal Punishment?
  24. How Big a Problem Is Bullying or Cyberbullying in Your School or Community?
  25. How Should Schools Address Bullying?
  26. Should Schools Put Tracking Devices in Students’ ID Cards?
  27. What Do You Think of Grouping Students by Ability in Schools?
  28. Do We Need a New Way to Teach Math?
  29. Does Class Size Matter?
  30. Should All Students Get Equal Space in a Yearbook?
  31. Is Prom Worth It?
  32. How Important Are Parent-Teacher Conferences?
  33. Should All Children Be Able to Go to Preschool?
  34. Should Colleges Use Admissions Criteria Other Than SAT Scores and Grades?
  35. What Criteria Should Be Used in Awarding Scholarships for College?
  36. Do You Support Affirmative Action?
  37. Do College Rankings Matter?
  38. How Necessary Is a College Education?
  39. Should Engineers Pay Less for College Than English Majors?


Argumentative Essay Topics on Sports and Athletics

  1. If Football Is So Dangerous to Players, Should We Be Watching It?
  2. Should Parents Let Their Children Play Football?
  3. Should College Football Players Get Paid?
  4. When Do Pranks Cross the Line to Become Bullying?
  5. Has Baseball Lost Its Cool?
  6. Are Some Youth Sports Too Intense?
  7. Is It Offensive for Sports Teams to Use Native American Names and Mascots?
  8. Where Should Colleges and Sports Teams Draw the Line in Selling Naming Rights?
  9. Should Colleges Fund Wellness Programs Instead of Sports?
  10. IsCheer-leadinga Sport?
  11. How Big a Deal Is It That an N.B.A. Player Came Out as Gay?
  12. Should There Be Stricter Rules About How Coaches Treat Their Players?
  13. Should Athletes Who Dope Have to Forfeit Their Titles and Medals?
  14. Should Sports Betting Be Legal Everywhere?
  15. Should Home-Schoolers Be Allowed to Play Public School Sports?
  16. Would You Want a Bike Share Program for Your Community?


Sample Argumentative Essay Topics On Health and fitness

  1. should healthcare be considered a right?
  2. Is the hybrid American Health care system sustainable or will it collapse back to the state it was at prior to the recent passing of laws?
  3. Should Cosmetic surgery be covered by insurance?
  4. should alternate medicines be covered by insurance?
  5. Can mental health clinics be attached to American high schools?
  6. What is the real cost of medicine, and why are health care costs so high in the first place?
  7. Why do people go to other countries for health care?
  8. How is the state of corruption in the Eastern European health care system affecting the healthcare decisions of patients?
  9. Is male circumcision ethical?
  10. Is female circumcision ethical?
  11. Is the compensation financially for doctors too high, are they exploiting people in need of health care?
  12. What everyday things can people do to avoid seeing a doctor?

What Should Be The Punishment For Cyberbullying

What Should Be The Punishment For Cyberbullying

Cyber Bullies: Rehabilitation over Reprimand

The dangers of cyber-bullying have long been known to researchers, but the problem now stands: what should be done with these cyber bullies?  There are multiple problems that arise when attempting to come up with a suitable punishment for cyber bullies. The parents and administrators naïvely believe that they can have an intimate sit-down conversation with their kid about the dangers of cyber or conduct a school assembly, but the truth of the matter is that bullies are often the victim of a much larger case of psychological trauma that can stem from a multitude of sources (Farmer 365). The best “punishment” for perpetrators of online bullying is to take a more psychological approach and focus on mental and self-rehabilitation that would get to the core of the problems that the student is experiencing and perpetuating unto others, rather than, conventional standards of punishment that take a more legal approach, like suspension, expulsion, and revocation of privileges, that fail to strike at the core of what made the student resort to cyber bullying in the first place.

Most of the time that children spend online is devoted to interacting with their peers on social media, which means children are always susceptible to bullies. Mishma et al. reported that nearly 75 percent of students ages 15-19 have experienced some sort of bullying in or out of school (107).  Since an overwhelming majority of people still report bullying, it is obvious that the preventative measures that have been implemented are ineffective and that something else needs to be done about it. Beale and Hall provide a litany of different preventative and interventive measures that can be taken, including, educational seminars for students and parents, increased relations with police, and development of a task force (10). However, these solutions take a mechanical and legal perspective and fail to understand and root out the fundamental cause of cyber bullying – psychological trauma. The solutions introduced by Beale and Hall focus too heavily on systematic preventative measures which flat-out contradicts the statistic that was cited earlier, that stated, despite preventative measure, cyber-bullying is still a prevalent issue. Under this kind of disciplinary structure, the cyber bully will go back to school without an understanding of why he acted in the way that they did and how it affected others.

Cyber bullies usually are not bullying simply for the sake of being bullies. Bullying can be a product of a multitude of different things but most commonly stems from misunderstood emotional trauma. This emotional trauma commonly stems from feelings of powerlessness and neglect (Farmer 366). Since the cyber bully is feeling these intense emotions and has no safe outlet for them to safely be expressed, they naturally assert these feeling on those they feel are even more powerless than themselves. It is a common belief that by forcing dominance upon another student, the bully has effectively found an outlet for their intense emotions (367). If the student were given the resources to healthily deal with their emotions the problem could have been avoided entirely, however, since avoiding the problem is not a good solution to the problem, once the student is found to be cyber bullying they should enter rehabilitation to strike at the core of what may be causing their bullyish tendencies.

The only type of preventive measure that can be taken is creating an environment that promotes the cultivation of good mental health and acceptance of others.   If students continue to fail to understand their own emotional trauma, then there will continue to be cyber bullies. There is little that can be done to intervene a would-be cyber bully. The best “punishment” that can be bestowed is a psychiatric mental evaluation, as opposed to legal disciplinary actions that fail to get to the root of the student’s problems. A focus on rehabilitation rather ensures the root of the problem has been found and the student can begin to live a long and fruitful life and positively impact the lives of those around them.




Works Cited

Beale, Andrew V., and Kimberly R. Hall. “Cyberbullying: What School Administrators (And       Parents) Can Do.” The Clearing House, vol. 81, no. 1, 2007, pp. 8–12. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Farmer, Thomas W., et al. “Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two          Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms.” The Elementary School Journal, vol. 110, no. 3, 2010, pp. 364–392. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Mishna, Faye, et al. “Real-World Dangers in an Online Reality: A Qualitative Study Examining   Online Relationships and Cyber Abuse.” Social Work Research, vol. 33, no. 2, 2009, pp.   107–118. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Can I Really Find Someone To Write My Essay For Me Free Online?

Can I Really Find Someone To Write My Essay For Me Free Online?

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Essay Writing Services Are Ethical And Necessary

Essay Writing Services Are Ethical And Necessary

A quick Google search will turn up hundreds, if not thousands, of essay writing services on the web, ranging from major companies to part-time independent freelancers. The exact number of available service providers, as well as the scope of its practice, is difficult to gauge. A recent survey, however, found that more than 20,000 students in the United Kingdom— with more than a third enrolled at Oxbridge universities— purchase tailor-made essays via online websites like iWriteEssays. However, the practice of tapping another writer to write for you is not necessarily a product of the 21st century. In fact, it has been going on for centuries with presidents and heads of state hiring authors to pen their famous speeches, Fortune 500 CEOs employing speech writers, and even university professors bringing in students as research assistants to help in their study, only to be published solely in the former’s name.


While quite common among celebrities, politicians, and even industry professionals who want to publish work, but they cannot write it themselves, the argument on whether essay-writing services like are ethical or not remains to be a heavily debated issue in the academia. In my opinion, it fully depends on the circumstances through which these services are sought. Undeniably, over-reliance on essay-writing services— where one finishes school without learning how to write a single essay because they outsourced all their coursework— can be very damaging.


But saying the services of essay-writing companies only benefit the lazy and privileged students would be completely wrong. Not only do these companies enable struggling writers to earn a decent living and even get recognized. They also save students who are unable to do their essays and papers themselves due to work overload, familial responsibility or other unforeseen circumstances. In such scenarios, these services are not only ethical but necessary. Sadly, most colleges and universities still frown upon this practice, arguing it is ethically wrong for students to procure the services of essay-writing companies. Sadly, this opinion is simply too naive, simplistic, and even self-righteous for completely discounting the plethora of reasons why students opt to receive the academic assistance in writing their essays or papers due.


For one, not all students are native English speakers who may easily grab the ins and outs of English grammar and essay writing. Today, there are at least 1.1 million foreign students enrolled in US schools, majority of whom, experience difficulties not only in getting settled and getting used to the new academic environment, but with understanding the English language as well.It is not unknown that many foreign students find it difficult to write college-level essays because English is not their first language. In fact, some of these students could be experts on the subject matter they are writing about and are great at grasping and understanding the course, but because of their lack of good written English skills, they end up with poor grades. Hence, this explains not only why essay writing services are extremely popular among foreign students but also why barring them from seeking professional help in writing their essay would be unfair and discriminatory to non-native English speakers.


Furthermore, it is no longer uncommon for students to work part-time. After all, it is great way for students to earn some extra cash and save up for their tuition, while gaining valuable experience. A Georgetown University study titled “Learning While Earning: The New Normal” found that somewhere between 70 and 80 percent of American students perform some kind of work while studying. This means 7 or 8 out of every 10 American students are also active on the labor market. This is one of the reasons why students may choose to use writing services— they don’t have enough time to write, because they work.  Likewise, having to work while at the same time attending class, studying for tests, completing assignments, and participating in extracurricular activities, the only work that a student can delegate is his/her writing work. For all the other activities, he/she will have to necessarily do them on their own. Undeniably, for a working college student, the most valuable thing is time. There is so much to be accomplished in so little time that most of said students would have to turn to writing services for some amount of help.


Indeed, in answering the million-dollar-question: “Are essay writing services ethical or not?” it is necessary to consider the completely valid reasons as to why students turn to writing services for help. The idea of ethics is very subjective, differing from person to person, and developed over years of societal and family conditioning. However, what can never be refuted is the fact that students today have too many tasks and coursework to complete and too little time to finish them satisfactorily. Hence, the choice of employing essay writing services remains to be ethical, even necessary, when juxtaposed to the increasing pressures on students arising from, for example, undertaking paid work, heavier coursework load, or lack of perfect grasp of the English language.


Work Cited

  1. Yorke, Harry. “More than 20,000 university students buying essays and dissertations.” Telegraph, 13 Jan 2017.
  2. atalova, Jeanne and Jie Zong. “International Students in the united States.” Migration Policy Institute, 9 May 2018. Accessed 20 June 2018.
  3. Rapacon, Stacy. “More college students are working while studying.” com, 29 October 2015. https://www. Accessed 20 June 2018.

Essay Writing Services Are Unethical And Must Be Banned In Academia

Essay Writing Services Are Unethical And Must Be Banned In Academia

Plagiarism has evolved into much more than a simple copy-and-paste job. In the last decade, “essay mills”—companies that supply written works from critique papers to entire dissertations, with students comprising majority of customers—have become accessible enough to provide viable options to students struggling with coursework (Shahabuddin 2016). The process is simple: Go on a mill’s website, give the details of your assignment (and credit card), and a writer can whip up a piece decent enough to submit in class. Although it’s easy to compare this to freelance ghostwriting, the academic context makes the ethics behind essay writing services wholly different from the situation in the professional world. There may be a dose of instant gratification offered along with it, but the use of essay mills is a highly unethical practice that must be banned in academia.

Essays and papers are assigned in higher education to aid learning—such works develop numerous skills from communication to critical thinking—to provide a diagnostic medium, and to assess (Henderson 1980; Riddell 2015). However, it is undeniable that some students will have a harder time completing these than others. Not all students, for instance, are native English speakers. Others have to balance school with pressing responsibilities. Essay mills tend to play to these vulnerabilities, arguing that, as Daniel Dennehy, the chief operating officer of UK Essays, writes, “Accepting that the support students are seeking can be a huge benefit to them” (Dennehy 2016). While it is true that students who turn in ghostwritten essays are unburdened of the writing process, the long-term consequences involved are more dangerous than relieving. Students have been expelled for engaging in this form of “contract cheating”—and even if submissions slip through professors and plagiarism-detection software, the impact is just as deplorable (Jacks 2016). Regardless of the underlying reason, turning in work bought from an essay-writing service raises questions as to why students even enroll in universities if they were unwilling or unable to put in the work needed to achieve their educational goals.


By advertising with the allure of getting work off students’ shoulders, essay mills exploit students’ weaknesses instead of encouraging adaptation to the rigors of academia. University results are undermined as unmerited degrees are awarded to students who graduate scot-free. In turn, this results in career disruption and a loss of professional credibility as students choose not to develop the competencies that come with completing school work (Tauginienė & Jurkevičius 2017). The use of essay mills is especially abhorrent in college admissions, where universities are looking for pieces that don’t just show effective communication skills, but character and personality. Applicants with ghostwritten personal statements won’t be admitted for their fitness for the institution; instead, their application will be built upon another’s work and writing style. This poses additional dangers for them if admitted—when faced with a rigorous course load, they may, once again, turn to essay mills. After all, research has shown that contract cheating is generally a habitual behavior (Clarke & Lancaster 2006).


Still, essay mill supporters argue for the service’s ethicality because of its supposed provision of academic value through “model essays”. “Most universities do not offer any such provision, but this is the essence of our service: we simply help students who need additional guidance by connecting them with qualified academics,” again, Dennehy says (Kelly 2017). “We embrace working with university tutors and academics to create model questions and answers, a recognised learning tool that helps guide students to success.” There is nothing unethical about using a model essay to gain inspiration. However, the vast range of essay-writing companies show inconsistencies in two significant areas: the standard of writing produced, and how ethics and academic integrity are treated (Medway, Roper, & Gillooly 2018). Due to the first aspect, it is not guaranteed that any given essay mill can produce work worthy of being “modeled”. Neither can the use of these essays be controlled. In a 2017 study analyzing the behaviors of essay-writing companies based in the United Kingdom, researchers found that all the investigated websites provided disclaimers stating their essays were for “research purposes only” (Draper, Ibezim, & Newton 2017). Unfortunately, it was also found that thirty-one percent of these had “potentially misleading advertising” that contradicted their terms and conditions, encouraging the idea that students can use the essays for submission in class. While the increase in mill usage exposes weak points in universities’ operations and assessment design, Dennehy’s argument does nothing to reverse how many students worldwide see education as a series of business transactions rather than a learning experience.


Contract cheating has yet to explode into an epidemic, but universities and government mustn’t wait to take action against it. It’s time for professors to rethink their assessments, and for students to remember that the goal of education is not to pass, but to learn—even if that involves initially getting low marks in the process of improving. Academic success shouldn’t have to revolve around industries. Rather, it roots from grit, organization, and confidence to do one’s best despite setbacks. Frankly, you don’t need a ghostwriter to develop those.


Works Cited

Clarke, Robert, and Thomas Lancaster. “Eliminating the Successor to Plagiarism? Identifying the Usage of Contract Cheating Sites.” Proceedings of 2nd International Plagiarism Conference, Jan. 2006.


Draper, Michael J., et al. “Are Essay Mills Committing Fraud? An Analysis of Their Behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK).” International Journal for Educational Integrity, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, doi:10.1007/s40979-017-0014-5.


Dennehy, Daniel. “View from an ‘Essay Mill’: the Best Offer Legitimate Support for Struggling Students.”

Henderson, Euan S. “The Essay in Continuous Assessment.” Studies in Higher Education, vol. 5, 1980, pp. 197–203., doi:10.1080/03075078012331377226.

Kelly, Guy. “Inside the ‘Essay Mills’ Offering to Do Students’ Work for Them.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 12 Oct.

Medway, Dominic, et al. “Contract Cheating in UK Higher Education: A Covert Investigation of Essay Mills.” British Educational Research Journal, vol. 44, no. 3, 2018, pp. 393–418., doi:10.1002/berj.3335.

Riddell, Jessica. “Performance, Feedback, and Revision: Metacognitive Approaches to Undergraduate Essay Writing.” Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, vol. 8, Dec. 2015, p. 79., doi:10.22329/celt.v8i0.4256

Shahabuddin, Syed. “Plagiarism in Academia.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning, vol. 21, 2009, pp. 353–359

Hire Qualified Essay Experts to Help You Write your Essays

Hire Qualified Essay Experts to Help You Write your Essays

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An Outline For A Speech

An Outline For A Speech : Informative Or Persuasive Speech Outline


A speech is a formal talk that a speaker addresses through spoken language words in front of an audience gathered in a place to hear the message.

A good speech has the following characteristics:

Clear. Successful speeches are fully dependent on the clarity of the idea and presentation.

Concise. A good speech should be concise to ensure that the concentration of the audience lasts longer.

Audience-oriented– a good speech should be mindful of the audience. It should focus on factors such as the age group, social, economic and political views of the audience.

The following is an outline for a speech:


1. Introduction

The introduction of a speech should consist of the following:

  • Attention grabber- it should have an interesting statement to help capture the attention of the audience.
  • Thesis- the thesis captures the main idea that you are going to speak about.
  • Motivation- this helps provide a reason as to why the audience should listen.
  • Preview- you should give a brief preview of the main points of your speech.
  • Transition- this is a complete sentence that connects the introduction with the next part of your speech.

2.   Body

The body should consist of the following:

First main point. This main point is worded as a claim. It includes:

  • Sub-point- worded as a claim and supports the main point. This sub-point should have some evidence to support the main point.
  • Any other potential sub-points, which should be explained in the same way as the first one.
  • Transition sentence.

Second main point. This second point is also worded as a claim. It includes

  • Sub-point. This sub-point should support the main point.
  • Transition sentence.
  1. Third main point. It includes:
  • Sub-point.
  • Transition sentence.

3.   Conclusion

The conclusion should:

  • Summarize your main points.
  • End with a note of finality.
  • Refer back to the introduction

Academic Essay Outline : Outline For Writing An Academic Essay

Academic Essay Outline : Outline For Writing An Academic Essay

Academic Essay Outline

An academic essay is a structured form of writing that serves the purpose of presenting new information or applying already existing knowledge to deliver a point.

Academic essays enable a student to communicate by developing ideas. The main purpose of an academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse.

There are several types of academic essays. These are:

Narrative- requires the writer to create a compelling story about anything imaginable.

Descriptive essay- the writer chooses a specific thing, experience, emotion or idea and describes it.

Expository essay- type of academic essay used to create a spotlight on matters using grounded information and facts.

Argumentative essay- the writer presents an argument through reasoning and use of evidence.

The following is an academic essay outline:

Academic Essay Outline

1. Introduction

You need to write an introduction to briefly introduce the topic and explain how your topic will be answered. The first sentence of your introduction should get the reader interested and motivate them to read on.

An introduction serves the following purpose:

  • Sets out the context of your argument.
  • Introduces the context of your essay.
  • Introduces the theoretical perspectives that you will use.
  • Sets out your thesis statement.
  • Explains how your essay will be organized.

2.  Body

An academic essay should have a body, which consists of several paragraphs. Your body paragraphs are the source of information for your readers. These paragraphs should:

  • Present a topic sentence supporting your thesis statement/point of argument.
  • Contain developing sentences, which extend the topic sentence.
  • Give evidence and examples, which support or relate to your topic sentence.
  • Provide a concluding sentence.

When writing an academic essay’s body ensure that you adhere to the following requirements:

Accuracy: be cautious with information an avoid contradicting yourself. Include the relevant point presented in your thesis statement.

Word choice: your vocabulary should accurately represent your information.

Consistency: Ensure that your paragraphs are consistent and follow a similar structure.

Evidence: support your ideas by providing facts, statistics, and references.



3.  Conclusion

You should end your academic essay with a strong finishing reminding your readers what they first read. A good conclusion should:

  • Restate your thesis statement.
  • Summarize the points and evidence that you have provided to support your thesis.
  • Suggest areas for further research and investigation.

4.  References

Provide evidence for the sources, which you have drawn ideas from to support your topic sentences.

In addition, you should also adhere to a certain style of writing in order to come up with a good academic essay. Some of the style pointers you could use include:

  • Use Standard English.
  • Write in the third person unless when otherwise directed.
  • Avoid slang terms, clichés and colloquial expressions.
  • Avoid gender-biased and sexist language.
  • Avoid controversial language.
  • Be direct. Use active rather than passive voice.
  • Be clear and concise

Rhetorical Analysis Outline : Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Rhetorical Analysis Outline : Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Rhetorical Analysis Outline (With Sample Rhetorical Analysis)

We will begin by saying what rhetorical analysis is NOT because many students end up writing the wrong thing when asked to write a rhetorical analysis.

A rhetorical analysis is NOT a summary of a literary work or scholarly article.

You are, instead, required to apply your critical reading skills in order to “break down” a text with the aim of articulating HOW the author writes, rather than WHAT they actually wrote.

To do this, you will need to analyze the rhetoric strategies (logos, ethos, pathos) the author uses to achieve his or her goal or purpose of writing their piece. Keep in mind that writers of different disciplines often use varying writing strategies in order to achieve their goals, such as to persuade, entertain or inform. So, a scientific article will be analyzed differently from a humanities text.

A rhetorical analysis should explore the writer’s goals, the techniques (or tools) used, examples of those techniques, and the effectiveness of those techniques.

When writing a rhetorical analysis, you are NOT saying whether or not you agree with the argument, but whether the approach used is successful.

Steps for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

Step 1: Read the Text

The first step in writing a rhetorical analysis is to understand the text, its main arguments, and the thesis statement. You should also note the rhetoric features that the author uses.

Some of the questions that can help you with your analysis include:

  • What is the thesis or overall argument that the author presents?
  • What did the author choose to study and why?
  • What is the writer’s purpose? Is it to inform, to persuade, or to criticize?
  • Who is the author’s intended audience?
  • How does the writer arrange his or her ideas? Chronologically?
  • How does the writer use diction? (Word choice, arrangement, accuracy, is it formal, informal? Technical versus slang?)
  • Does the writer use dialogue? Quotations? Why or what effect does it have?
  • Are important terms repeated?
  • What is the sentence structure of text? Are there fragments, run-ons? Is it declarative, imperative, and exclamatory? What effect does this have?
  • Does the writer use punctuation to create an effect? Italics, underlining, parentheses?
  • Which marks does the writer use, and when?
  • Which rhetorical appeals does the author use? Whether logos, pathos, or ethos.

Step 2: Prepare an Outline for Your Rhetorical Analysis

Rhetorical Analysis Outline

1.0 Introduction

The introduction can be one or two paragraphs. Some of the things you can do in the introduction include:

  • Summarizing the text: Write the name of the author and something about them to establish their credibility & authority. You should also state the genre, and title of work, and a phrase containing the major assertion (thesis statement) of the work.
  • Writing about the Text’s Guiding Thesis: A statement of the author’s apparent purpose.
  • Telling your readers who  the author is: e.g. Scholar, professor, and author, specializing in gender studies
  • Telling your readers why the author has the right to write the subject: e.g. personal experience, field expert, etc.
  • Telling your readers what the author’s motivation is
  • A description of the intended audience and the relationship the author establishes with the audience

2.0 Body Paragraph #1:

  • Topic sentence/transition: begin with a transition and topic sentence that reflects the first topic in the thesis
  • Use quotes from the text to illustrate how the author uses appeals to ethos. When analyzing ethos, you are analyzing whether the rhetor is perceived by the audience as credible (or not).
  • Analysis: explain how the quotes show the effective use of ethos, as noted in the thesis

3.0 Body Paragraph #2:

  • Topic sentence/transition: Transition and topic sentence about the second point from the thesis
  • Use quotes from the text that illustrates appeals to logos. Logos analyses whether the rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by the use of arguments that they will perceive as logical. Some of the strategies of making logical arguments that you can discuss include the use of analogy, cause, and effect, using testimony and authority, using definition, and syllogism.
  • Analysis: more sentences that explain how the quotes show the effective use of logos, as noted in the thesis

4.0 Last Body Paragraph:

  • Topic sentence/transition: Transition and topic sentence about the third point from the thesis
  • Use quotes from the text to illustrate how the author appeals to pathos. When analyzing the use of pathos, check whether the author attempts to persuade the audience by making them feel certain emotions.
  • Analysis: Analysis that explains how the quotes show the effective use of pathos, as noted in the thesis

5.0 Other Body Paragraphs

  • Topic sentence/transition: Transition and topic sentence about next point from thesis
  • Quotes illustrate how the author uses ethos, pathos, or logos in their text
  • Analysis: explains how the quote supports the thesis

6.0 Conclusion

  • Restatement of the thesis that digs deeper into the overall intended meaning of the text than the one in the introductory paragraph
  • Reflection on examples and main ideas in body paragraphs, the significance of these strategies, AND how they are linked to your thesis.
  • State if these were effective in conveying the claim/thesis/purpose.
  • Closing thought – closing out the main purpose of the text being analyzed.

7.0 References

Check the style guide to know the appropriate referencing style to use. All the resources that you quoted in the text should be included in the references list. The text that you are analyzing should also be included in the references. IN most cases, this is the only reference.

Lab Report Outline : How To Write A Lab Report

Lab Report Outline : How To Write A Lab Report

Lab Report Template: How To Write A Lab Report

High school and college students, particularly those in the science field (science, chemistry, and physics), are expected to learn how to conduct a proper lab experiment. Scientific experiments usually take place in the laboratory, and students are expected to know the various equipment they work with, how to connect them, how to prepare samples for the experiment, how to calibrate the equipment, and how to collect data.

Students will also spend a lot of time presenting the data and findings of the experiment in a concise, objective, and conclusive format called a lab report.

A well-organized laboratory report is much more effective and influential than one without a structure. Many universities and colleges have instructions for writing a laboratory report and students should follow the approved structure whenever it has been provided.

However, if no format is given, you can follow the format below to write your lab report.


Lab Report Outline Or Template

1.0 Cover page

When writing any paper in APA format, you must start with a cover page. The main elements of the cover page are:

    • A title for the report
    • Your name
    • Course

These elements should be on a page of their own at the beginning of the paper. The title of your paper should reflect the purpose of the experiment. Refer to an APA Manual on how to write your title and cover page.

2.0 Abstract

An abstract is a 150 – 200 words overview of the experiment, including its findings and conclusions.

In general, the abstract should answer six questions:

  • Why was the experiment conducted?
  • What specific problem/research question was being addressed?
  • What methods were used to solve the problem/answer the question?
  • What results were obtained?
  • What do these results mean?

The most important rule for writing an abstract is to be brief and to the point. Someone who is unfamiliar with your experiment should be able to understand why you did what you did, and the conclusions you reached, without needing to read the rest of the report.

3.0 Introduction

Every report must have a well-written introduction to lure in readers and provide context for the study.

The introduction should:

  • Provide the context and motivation for the experiment
  • Briefly explain the relevant theory in sufficient detail
  • Introduce any relevant laws, equations or theorems that will be relied on
  • Clearly state the aim or research question that the experiment is designed to address.

4.0 Method

You should describe how you conducted the experiment in this section. Write exactly what you actually did, not j what you planned to do.

A typical procedure usually includes:

  • How apparatus and equipment were set up (e.g. Experimental set-up), usually including a diagram,
  • A list of materials used
  • Steps used to collect the data
  • Any experimental difficulties encountered and how they were resolved or worked around
  • Indicate what para
  • meter or properties of the system you are measuring.

If any aspects of the experimental procedure were likely to contribute systematic error to the data and results, point this out in sufficient detail in this section.

4.1. Experimental Set-up and Materials

Describe how the experiment was set-up in sufficient detail to allow someone else to replicate the experiment. You will usually begin with a description of the materials used and/or the apparatus set-up accompanied by:

    • An image showing the relevant features of any object or material under investigation
    • A diagram of the experimental setup, with each component labeled

4.2 Procedure

When you carry out an experiment, you usually follow a set of instructions such as these, which may include extra information to guide you through the steps.

Indicate what parameter or properties of the system you are measuring.  Usually, in an experiment, you change a parameter of the system (the independent variable) and measure its effect (dependent variable).

5.0 Results and Analysis

Present the main data collected during your experiment. Ensure that every key measurement is reported appropriately. The best way to represent data is by using graphs, figures or tables.

This section often also includes analysis of the raw data, such as calculations. In some disciplines the analysis is presented under its own heading, in others, it is included in the results section. An analysis of the errors or uncertainties in the experiment is also usually included in this section.

In short, the results section should:

  • Provide tables showing your measurement with units.
  • Describe the uncertainties: standard, instrument, random errors
  • Provide graphs.  Graphs should be neat, clear, and include the axis label and units.
  • Computation of the final answer: slope calculation, averages, and standard deviations all in proper significant figures.

Any data presented in tables or graphs should be labeled appropriately to clearly indicate what is shown. Tables should be labeled numerically as table 1, table 2, etc.

Everything else (graphs, images, diagrams, etc.) Is labeled numerically as figure 1, figure 2,  etc. (references to figures in the main body of the text are usually written in abbreviated form, e.g. ‘see fig. 1’).

Table captions appear above the table. Figure captions appear below the figure.

6.0 Discussion

The discussion section is where you comment on the results you obtained, interpret what the results mean, and explain any results which are unexpected.

Your discussion section should demonstrate how well you understand what happened in the experiment.

You should:

  • Identify and comment on any trends you have observed
  • Compare the experimental results with any predictions
  • Identify how any sources of error might impact on the interpretation of your results
  • Suggest explanations for unexpected results, and
  • If appropriate, suggest how the experiment could have been improved.

7.0 Conclusion

The conclusion section should summarize what has been learned from the experiment.

Some of the things that should be included in the conclusion include:

  • Restating the purpose of the experiment
  • Identifying the main findings
  • Saying the limitations of the study
  • Stating how the experiment has contributed to your understanding of the problem.

8.0 References

The introduction usually states some theories and studies.  In addition, the discussion section will often include in-text citations, to show how your findings relate to those in the published literature, or to provide evidence-based suggestions or explanations for what you observed.

When in-text citations are incorporated into your lab report, you must always have the full citations included in a separate reference list. The reference list is a separate section that comes after your conclusion (and before any appendices).

When adding a reference list, you should follow the APA style guide (or the style guide asked of you by the lecturer).

A sample APA reference for a journal:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of the article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

9.0 Appendices

An appendix should contain all material that is too detailed to include in the main report, such as tables of raw data or detailed calculations.