15 Effective Tips For Nurses To Prevent Medication Errors

15 Effective Tips For Nurses To Prevent Medication Errors

Nursing is a daunting job, especially when you are new to it. First-year nurses often make mistakes that may prove to be painful for the patients. The most important point that nurses should remember before administering medication to patients is to be attentive and alert. Take as much information as you can about both the patient and drug to be administered. Never be afraid to ask questions because it may be a matter of life and death for a person. Be the kind of nurse that you would have liked to have if you were a patient. Many of the nursing students are taking nursing assignment help online to score good marks and become a successful Nurse to help others. These 15 tips should be followed by every nurse before administering medication to their patients to prevent any medication errors:

Study The Different Kinds Of Medications

Being a nurse, you should know about the different kinds of medications available. However, it is not humanly possible to know all the kinds of medication. So, nurses should try and read about the medication as and when they are prescribed to the patients, that they are handling. They should know the medication that they are administering to patients. There are books available on the different kinds of medication available. Nurses should know both the generic and the brand name of the drug to avoid confusion between different brands, that have differing dosages.

The following links provide relevant information as to the types of medications that should be used in different cases.


Refer To Your Nurse’s Drug Handbook Regularly

This is a continuation of the above point. A nurse’s drug handbook is a vast source of information on most type of generic drugs. Nurses should check this handbook regularly before administering a drug to a patient. Over a period, you should be able to memorize some kinds of drugs and their uses. You will also know about their adverse effects. This knowledge will help you in administering the correct drug and its dosage to a patient.

For example: https://www.jblearning.com/catalog/productdetails/9781284144895

www.jblearning.com › Nursing > Drug Reference/Pharmacology

Generally Nurse Drug Handbook consists of

  • Drug Monographs A-Z
  • Drug Compatibility
  • Conversions and Calculations
  • Medication Reconciliation
  • Monitoring drug levels
  • Time for administration of drugs
  • Guidelines for handling, preparing and administrating hazardous drugs
  • Effect of Dialysis on drug therapy
  • Drug classes
  • And many more

Maintain Precise Communication With Doctors And Pharmacists

Medication prescriptions are sometimes lost in the midst of communication from doctors to nurses to pharmacists. Nurses should keep a pen and pad ready when the doctor is dictating a prescription. The nurse should repeat the prescription once to the doctor and confirm that it is correct. If the doctor does not have enough time for repetition, the nurse should again cross-check with the drug handbook to see whether the drug matches the patient’s case. The nurse should also make sure that the pharmacist has received the correct prescription by repeating and verifying it.

The Right Patient Has To Be Identified

The most vital practice for preventing medication errors is to identify the correct patient. Nurses should ask the patients’ name and date of birth to make sure that they are administering the relevant drug to the correct patient. This has to be done even if you are administering the same medicine more than once in the same shift. Errors often occur when nurses think that they completely know each patient’s drug administration chart, and then they do not bother to ask the patient’s name. If the patient has difficulties in speaking, nurses should read the name tags on each patient’s bed to make sure that they are administering the right drug to the correct patient.

The following information must be strictly noted by the nurses like

  • Name
  • Identification number
  • Date of birth
  • Phone number
  • Social Security Number

At least two identifiers must be used like name and date of birth. Room number must not be included in these two identifiers

  • Previous medication history
  • Previous doctors attending the patient

Ensure That You Administrate The Right Drug

Some drugs are deceptively similar-looking. As a nurse, it is your duty to check whether you are administering the right drug. Nurses should use the generic name as well along with the brand name to clear any confusion as to the drug’s contents and effects. There are many brand names that sound similar but have very different effects on a patient with a particular problem. Some similar brand names are Anacin and Anacin-3Claritin and Claritin – D 24Diovan and DiovalGlucotrol and GlycotrolOmacor and Amicar. Some drugs are packed similarly as well. Nurses should be very careful about this and ensure that they unpack the drug and administer the correct one to the patient.

Get Information On The Allergies That The Patient Has Had

To prevent adverse drug reactions, nurses should know about any previous allergies that the patient might have had. This allergy could have been caused by a similar drug, and the patient might have forgotten to write that in his/her form. The nurse should inform the doctor about this immediately. It may happen that the previous medication prescriptions do not mention the known allergies of the patient. Therefore, the nurse should ask the patients themselves about their allergies before administering a new drug

Label The Medication Correctly

Although it is not advised to transfer drugs from the original container to a new one, yet it may be done due to many compulsions. Shortage of containers or a possibility of the original container being contaminated forces a transfer of the drug to another container. If this transfer does take place, nurse should ensure that proper labels are stuck on the face of the container for easy identification. Be sure that you have written the generic name as well along with the brand name. This helps in clearing confusion and removing the possibility of adverse effects on the patient.

How Can Nurses Reduce Medication Errors?

Cross-Check When New Medication Is Ordered

Cross-checking with your team of nurses is the best way to ensure that the correct medication is administered. When new medication is ordered, nurses should ask their colleagues about its effects and adverse effects. There is no harm in taking a second opinion. In a field where saving human lives is the objective, asking and confirming about medication will not render you to be inexperienced or inferior in any way.

Remember that you are trying to heal a fellow human being and that you should do whatever it takes for that objective.

  • Check for the drug or medicine group
  • The Expiry date
  • Whether it has been previously used or not
  • Whether the drug class confirms with doctor’s prescription etc.

What Are The Consequences Of Medication Errors?

Some consequences of medication errors are

  • Death of patients
  • Allergy
  • Late recovery
  • Immunological problems
  • Permanent or temporary damage to patient parts
  • Multiple side effects

What Are The 7 Rights When Giving Medication?

The 7Rs of medication that must be followed by all nurses

  • Right Medication
  • Right Patient
  • Right dosage
  • Right route
  • Right time
  • Right reason
  • Right documentation

Have One Of Your Teammates Cross-Check High Alert Drugs

Drugs belonging to the High Alert category are so powerful that even the slightest discrepancy will directly affect the vital signs of the patient. Due to this potency of the high alert drugs, it is crucial that you have it cross-checked with a colleague or a superior to ensure that it is a necessity for a particular patient. Some High Alert drugs are – epinephrene, oxytocin IV, promethazine IV, opium tincture and numerous other drugs.

Make Sure That You And The Medication Equipment Are Disinfected Before Touching A Patient

Never touch patients or medical equipment without sterilizing your hands first. Nurses handle scores of patients every day and come in contact with various kinds of germs and bacteria. You should always wash your hands before and after coming in contact with a patient so that you do not transfer one patient’s germs to the other. Before and after touching surgical and other medical equipment, wash your hands in an aseptic manner to remove all kinds of harmful pathogens. Remember, infection is the first stage of an illness and it is your duty as a nurse to prevent it from happening, especially through you.

Handle Older Patients And Patients Prone To Seizures With Extra Care

Many deaths have occurred in hospitals by patients falling because nurses did not handle them properly. You should handle older patients with utmost of care. Never ask them to rush through something. Their locomotive skills cannot match yours, so you have to be careful about their movements. Make sure that your grip is firm but not too tight. Talk to them in a friendly manner. If they do not cooperate, don’t hesitate in being firm with them. It is your duty to treat and heal them. Nurses should never let epileptic patients stand on their own. The electrical impulses in the brain may just become erratic in nature because they might have missed a medication dose or are having problems in sleeping. These precautions will always prevent medication errors as the nurses are alert to the specific needs of these kinds of patients.

Prioritize – Attend To Critical Patients First

Prioritization is vital in completing tasks. For example, if a nurse has to choose between caring for a patient who has just come in with third-degree burns and a patient who has to take his routine evening walk, obviously the nurse will choose to do the former. That nurse can delegate the duty of the evening walk to another nurse or an intern. This way, the nurse can cater to the needs of the patient who is in a critical state without failing to assist the other patient whose evening walk is necessary for proper digestion.

While Crushing And Cutting Pills, Check For Extended Release Coatings

Tablets that have an ‘extended release’ coating affect the patient’s body in small doses over a period. This tablet reduces the frequency of administering the medication but functions in the same manner as the multiple administrations. If you crush or cut them, the coating is lost and the tablet will have an immediate powerful effect on the patient. This effect is equivalent to an overdose of the medication. Nurses should be extra careful when crushing or cutting these extended release coating tablets.

Do Not Confuse Ear Drops For Eye Drops And Vice-Versa

Ear drops and eye drops are common in hospitals. These are given to numerous patients as part of the medication for various ailments. Since they look similar, nurses often get confused between them. If you apply eye drops in the ear, it will not be painful since eye drops are a gentle solution, but if you apply ear drops in a patient’s eye, he/she may experience burning and itching inside the eye and it will be very painful. Make sure that the two tubes are correctly labeled. Check the label every time you administer it to a patient even if you do it more than once in a shift.

Help Your Children With The Best Australian Essay Writing Service Provider

Help Your Children With The Best Australian Essay Writing Service Provider

How usual have we heard from our child: Do my Essay for me? It is not at all good for children if their parents compose the paper for them. In fact, it would be really kind if parents try to show them how the paper is written. Try to assist your child in the writing process not make your child totally depend upon you. The best work that can be done by parents is taking help of the Australian Essay Writing service providers. Parents can find reliable writing companies that can assist students in every manner. In fact, these companies motivate students to work hard so that they can really perform well in their semester. The remarkable thing about these companies is that they write all custom essays. Therefore, students get all the work that is authentic and original. Parents can also be relaxed that students are in safe hand and there is no harm to their future. However, it is on the part of parents to choose the best Australian Essay Writing service provider for their child. Once you have located a reliable company than all other elementary things will be looked by the writing company. The nicest part is that these companies appoint the best of experts for their team. So, the quality of writing will never be on stake. In fact, they will write a paper that will look quite professional and impressive. Just as a parent you should bear in their heart and mind that their search for a writing company should always be in a positive direction. Do not make any decision immediately. Take time to know about the experience and report of the company that you want to hire. Last, do compare the price quotations of different company before finalizing any particular company for your child’s bright and shining future.

Seven Best Practices To Keep Your Food Safe At Home

Seven Best Practices To Keep Your Food Safe At Home

The hectic pace of today’s lifestyle does not allow you to cook every day. Most of you, therefore, usually cook food that is more than required for a single day and keep away the surplus amount for consumption the following day. Hence, preservation of food is equally important for our health. Preservation is the prime factor that makes us think of food safety at home.

To promote food safety, Australia’s Food Safety Information Council is holding Food Safety Week Australia from November 9 to 16, 2014. This year, the theme for the week is ‘Temperature Danger Zone – Keeping the Hot Food Hot and Cold Food Cold’. The event is aimed at making people aware of how to prevent bacteria and other parasites from infecting their food.

How To Keep Your Home-Cooked Food Safe?

The importance of food safety is at the forefront in developed economies like Australia after the rising incidents of food poisoning and nutrition-deficit issues. Here are seven best ways to preserve your home food and keep it fresh:

Wash The Kitchen Surroundings:

It is very easy for bacteria to spread in and around your kitchen and even get on to the food. This can lead to food poisoning. To keep your kitchen surroundings free from bacteria, wash your hands with warm water and soap for around 20 seconds. You should even wash your cooking utensils and dishes with hot soapy water every time you use them to prevent bacterial infection.

Cook At The Right Temperature:

It is always advisable to cook home food at temperatures that can kill harmful bacteria. Avoid relying on taste or smell to assure yourself of bacteria-free food. Using a food thermometer is the best methodology to ensure that food is cooked at proper temperature, i.e. usually above 140°F.

Refrigeration Is Important:

It is an important procedure of preserving cooked food, especially if it’s leftover food. Refrigerators can store food at preferred temperatures at or below 40°F and their freezers at or below 0°F to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria that cause food poisoning.

Keep Various Food Products Separately:

There are chances of cross-contamination when harmful bacteria get transferred from one food product to another. Hence, it is advised to keep raw food products separate from packaged food products while cooking, storing or eating food at home.

Visual Tracking Of Food Freshness:

When you do not have a food thermometer at home, take an estimate by carefully looking at the progress of the food being cooked. Signs like steam rising from the food, color of the juices from meat or poultry items and color of egg yolks and whites can help you in deciding whether the food is fresh or stale after cooking.

Timely Change Of Towels:

Always keep replacing and washing the sponges and towels that you use for wiping dishes and other utensils. Washing them can prevent the spread of harmful bacteria inside the kitchen.

Maintain Clean Surfaces:

Always avoid placing food over a plate or a cutting board that has been previously used for keeping meat or seafood, until it has been cleaned.

The above practices can assure you of enriched food and nutrition in your life and boost your health.

Essays Help USA For MBA Students

Essays Help USA For MBA Students

If students have searched few years back to use anMBA Essay Writing Service provider surely they would be deeply disappointed by going through almost no results. But now things have changed drastically and a lot of improvement can be seen in every field. New technologies, discoveries and exclusion of conventional styles can be seen clearly. Among those is Essay Help USA which has emerged in recent time to assist students. Enrolling in MBA was never easy. In fact, it has become tougher as the number of students has increased who want to do MBA. In a tough situation like these essays play an imperative role in impressing the admission officer. At the situation like this, the importance of professional writing company is understood by students. Surely a professional writing expert is beneficial for students but deciding the right one who is trustworthy and can provide you exactly the kind of services you want is crucial. Thanks to search engine pages, Google and Yahoo who made it easier to search professionals and tutors of this kind who provide these services like Essay Editing, proofreading, but the problem which students face is the availability of a large number of such professionals which make the selection hard. Whenever pupils are looking forward to getting connected with Essay Help USA they must search out for few important things which can aid them to take a better decision. The first and very important thing before buying or shop around is to get an exact idea of the industry and industry professionals. What are the rates, time of delivery and additional services which they are giving must be taken into account. It is quite usual that such kind of services will not come at expensive rate but still getting more details on rates can be beneficial.

Texting Tribulations: What Texting Does To Your Spine?

Texting Tribulations: What Texting Does To Your Spine?

Spine problems are widely misunderstood by doctors and patients alike. Doctors often do not agree on the causes of the spine problems, while patients often fail to comprehend the medical complications arising out of spine related disorders. Spinal discs are round in shape and flat on top, firmly attached to the vertebrae above and below them. They are pliant and act as shock absorbers but like other bones in the body, they are often susceptible to problems arising out of bad posturing and degeneration due to aging.

The Study

A new study by Kenneth K. Hansraj, chief of spine surgery at New York Spine Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, has revealed disturbing results on the effects of using cell phones on spinal bones. According to the research conducted by him, bad posturing while using cell phones especially while texting can put undue pressure on the spine along with the muscles, tendons and ligaments leading to a variety of spine related ailments.

The Experiment

The doctors at the New York hospital created a model of the cervical spine. Then pressure was extracted in newtons and converted into pounds. The results were disturbing.

An average human head weighs around 10 to 12 pounds in the neutral position. But as the head was tilted forward, the pressure progressively raised up to 60 pounds (almost six times the weight of the average human head). What was scarier was the fact that such posturing not only affected the spine, but also the muscles, tendons and ligaments which usually absorbed the pressure experienced by the spine.

Problems Related To Texting

It is estimated that people spend two to four hours a day with their head tilted over while reading or texting on a smart phone. Cumulatively this leads to around 700 to 1400 hours of excess stress on the spine in a year. Further, students might spend extra 5000 hours in poor posture.  Poor posturing can lead to wear, tear, degeneration and even surgeries.

Good Posture Versus Bad Posture

The study, however, suggested a simple solution to the problem. While texting and reading on cell phones are fine, it is important to maintain a proper posture. According to doctors, the most efficient posture is one where ears are in perfect alignment with the shoulder and the shoulder blades are retracted. Further studies have shown that people who posed in such a high power posture, experienced elevations in testosterone; increase in serotonin and decrease in cortisol. Moreover, they showed higher propensity to take risks as compared to those who stopped and drooped their shoulders.

A Word Of Advice

Doctors are well aware of the importance of smart phone and other such devices in contemporary life. As such they advice people to tweak their lifestyle and texting habit a bit to avoid spine issues. People are advised to look at their mobiles with a neutral spine position and reduce the number of hours they spend on their phones each day. Good posture is essential for general health, bone health and a healthy spine.

Do My Essay Services Available 24×7

Do My Essay Services Available 24×7

Do you often wonder who can do my essay?’ Services like academic helpers are there to assist you in every way. You might feel that opting for these services can be very tedious. There are instances when students complain that the service providers never respond to their queries.

But, if you hire a reliable service, you do not have to think about scoring poor grades. You can pass important information to the writer and receive a paper that matches your requirements. There are many services that give a prompt answer to ‘who can write my essay’ with their 24*7 service.

When you put up a search query such as who can do my essay?’ reliable services in Australiawill come to your rescue. Go for a service which promises to be available 24*7. There are many services that promise to be available for 24 hours. In case you need to know anything on an urgent basis, you can talk to their customer support executives.

However, before discussing the type of customer support help service, read to know why round the clock availability is important for an academic service provider.

Why Academic Writing Companies Should Provide Round The Clock Availability?

There are different reasons for which a service should remain active for their customers. When it comes to academic support, students might have important instructions to pass on to the writers. Given below are a bunch of reasons which make 24*7 availability a must:

  • Serving the customers is the main ‘mantra’: When the customers wonder ‘who can do my essay?’ professional service providers in Australia must answer quickly. When a service is available for 24 hours, then the company automatically gains the customer’s trust. As academic service is all about serving the customers, and 24 hours availability is mandatory.
  • Availability leads to customer satisfaction: When a customer puts up a query to your support team by typing ‘who can write my essay,’ your service should be there to help him/her. Without a prompt reply, it isn’t possible for the customers to have a happy and satisfying experience by opting for the service. When clients get an instant reply, they are satisfied with the customer support team and arrive at the decision to hire your service.
  • Adds to the authenticity of the service: When you reply to your customers promptly and clear all their queries, you establish your service as a genuine one. Students look for authenticity when they wonder who can best write my essay?’ Professional services in Australia make sure that the customer support executives are available round the clock. It helps them to stay ahead of their competitors. To be considered as a genuine service, it is important to provide 24 hours customer support.

These are some of the basic reasons to provide round the clock assistance to the customers.

What Are The Different Channels To Provide 24*7 Customer Support?

When it comes to investing in channels of communication, here are the three types of popular customer support:

  • Call support: Whenever a customer has a query such as ‘who can do my essay?’ professional service providers in Australia,’ you need to make sure that the customer can call the company directly and clear all the doubts related to their assignment. Therefore, call support is an indispensable part of customer help. You should keep an active customer help number where students can directly call and get all the answers to their question ‘who can do my essay?’ Your service providers should deliver prompt answers when they place a call.
  • Email support: Email is a very important aspect of customer support. There are many customers who mail the service provider to get all their queries resolved. Email is the best way to describe all the details regarding your service. Moreover, you can also solve their query by providing information about their requirements. When they read the solution to their question, they feel valued and their query ‘who can do my essay with authentic service?’ comes to an end.
  • Chat Support: Chat support is the best option to provide instant feedback to the customers. Sometimes, customers can put up an urgent query that needs to be resolved immediately. In such a case, waiting for a call to get connected or replying to an email can be difficult. Chat support is the best way to provide your customers with instant feedback.

Hence, it can be concluded that 24*7 availability is the most important feature of a service that provides academic assignment help to the students.

Five Issues In Contemporary Nursing

Issues In Contemporary Nursing: Top Five Challenges

According to a survey report of American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), nursing is one of the largest healthcare professions with more than 3.1 million nurses and 2.6 million licensed registered nurses (RNs) across the world. Nursing industry, however, has to counter numerous legal, ethical and moral issues in the world of healthcare. The issues affect both today’s nurse managers and tomorrow’s nurse leaders. Nursing students should have a comprehensive knowledge about these problems so that they can deal with it effectively during their professional life. Professional life is lead by academics which included nursing assignments and help for nursing assignments

Five Issues In Contemporary Nursing

Nursing as a profession can be rewarding and at the same time challenging too. Nurses comprise majority of the workforce in the healthcare industry and hence are often targeted when a hospital needs to lay off its staff as cost-cutting measure. In addition to retrenchment, nurses confront many others problems and most are becoming worse day by day owing to lack of legislation.  Let us discuss in details the top five issues plaguing contemporary nursing.

1. Staff Crisis In Hospital:

Staff crisis is badly affecting healthcare. The issue is aggravating as the hospital management is investing more in advance medical equipments and ignoring maintenance of adequate staff. As a result, the safety and care of the patients are being compromised. The number of patients that a single nurse has to take care of is rising. The issue can be addressed if other states follow California’s lead in adopting a Safe Staffing RN Ratios Law. California, however, took 12 years to have this legislation approved. So it is not an easy job.

2. Fulfilling Patient Expectations:

Meeting the expectation of patients is considered as a priority in healthcare industry and it is hard enough to achieve. Nurses have to stretch beyond their normal duties to fulfill the needs and demands of the patients. They are held accountable for all the complaints the patients have.

3. Lack Of Respect:

Nurses experience lack of respect from the patients, doctors, administrators and even from their co-workers. According to Medscape’s online survey, 31.4 percent of the respondents interviewed complained of ‘lack of respect from other healthcare providers/non-nurses.’ ANA 2011 Health and Safety Survey showed that physical assault and verbal abuse have gone down, but the issue still remains a concern. The survey revealed that within a 12-month period, 11 percent of RNs were assaulted physically and 52 percent were either threatened or verbally abused.

4. Quality Check:

The healthcare industry always aims at improving quality in some way or the other. But patients face inadequate quality in nursing services. The nurses claim inadequate supplies and poor team spirit among colleagues for this issue.

5. The Rise Of Care Coordination And ‘Medical Extensivist’:

The word ‘extensivist’ first caught attention when it featured in the top 13 healthcare buzzwords of 2013. Extensivist is a kind of advanced practice in nursing where a nurse takes the practice outside the hospital and into the home. The aim is to help people suffering from chronic illness healthy outside the hospital. But this means added responsibilities on nurses.

These are the five major problems faced by nurses today. But since the healthcare industry is constantly evolving, it is expected that more problems will emerge in contemporary nursing in the near future.

Last Minute Help Available For Application Essays

Last Minute Help Available For Application Essays

 Students stress levels increases when the given deadlines cross or are approaching near. A good number of the students have no idea about writing Application Essays.  If you have a strict deadline and you are unable to proofread or edit your content, you have the option to take Essay Help from the best of writing companies before submitting it to your teacher. It is considered that they aid in submitting error free and good paper help students to attain excellent marks. On the other side, if the same is not done in a proper and accurate manner it can lead to deduct their marks. Therefore, all these papers should be taken quite seriously by students if they want to get good marks. To assist students, many Australian Essay Writing service providers are available. Before starting any project, the experts ensure to conduct a profound research so that all the important points are covered in the Application Essays. There is no call for students to spend long hours in libraries to collect relevant information. The writer working on your assignment will complete all this work on your behalf. Students just need to make sure that they give all the correct information regarding their project. The exciting thing is that once the paper is completed and if it is not up to the mark according to the students than your writer is ready to make changes. The intention of the writer is to deliver the work which pleases students.  Also, if students ask for revisions and editing the writer is available for the same. So, when there are innumerable benefits of writing company so students should also ensure that they must choose the best company for their various needs. So, from today only start a good exploration on the web to find an unfailing company.

Aids And Contemporary Society: Politics, Policies And Pathophysiology

Aids And Contemporary Society: Politics, Policies And Pathophysiology

A virus is a microorganism which invades living organisms and replicates inside their bodies, producing diseases. Beyond this limited physiological meaning, there are multiple levels of social and cultural meanings which are attached to the virus by humans. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus — fearsomely known as HIV virus, which causes a progressive failure of the immune system leading to opportunistic infections and ultimately death — has produced great social and moral consternation in the last two decades. In this article, we turn our attention to three aspects of the disease caused by the HIV virus: pathophysiology, government response to the pandemic and societal reaction to the disease.


Pathophysiology: The Virus And Its Mode Of Transmission

HIV virus is a retrovirus which is transmitted through human body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk etc. It affects the immune system of our body, destroying the CD4+ T cells of our body. There are two strains of the virus, which are currently known:

  • HIV-1 which was originally discovered and known throughout the world
  • HIV-2, the less virulent of the two varieties which is mainly restricted to West Africa

There are a lot of misconceptions regarding HIV and AIDS. It should be kept in mind that HIV is the virus, which when present inside the body, produces a disease spectrum, the final level of which is called AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In totality the disease has 5 stages, as recognized by WHO.

  • Initial stage is called the stage of infection and is asymptomatic in nature.
  • The next stage is called the primary stage which is also asymptomatic with T cell count greater than 500 per cubic mm of blood.
  • In the next stage, mucacutenous infections along with respiratory tract diseases might occur.
  • In stage four, there may be chronic diarrhea with bacterial infections like tuberculosis.
  • The final stage is called AIDS which is characterized by toxoplasmosis of brain, Kaposi’s sarcoma, yeast infections etc.

Another area of misconception is about how the virus spreads. The virus cannot be indirectly transmitted. It needs the warmth of human body fluids. As such, kissing, hugging or dining with an infected person does not entail a transmission of the virus. It can, however, be transmitted through sexual contact, use of intravenous injections and from mother to the child. Sexual transmission may either be between persons of different sex or persons of the same sex. Intravenous drug users are also highly susceptible to HIV.

Clinical testing is the only way we can be aware about the presence of the virus. Most people infected with HIV develop antibodies within three to twelve weeks of initial infection. Positive results can only be obtained after 12 weeks have passed.

As of 2014, HIV virus has produced no vaccine. Treatment of AIDS consists of high active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) which incorporates a cocktail of various classes of anti-retroviral drugs. Prevention is the only way to tackle the epidemic and condom (only the latex variety) is the best way to prevent the disease.

Societal And Cultural Responses

The society at large associates certain diseases with certain marginalized groups of people; and HIV/AIDS is no different. Although medically it can be transmitted in either male to male or male to female or female to male sexual interactions, the male homosexual community has been deeply ostracized in contemporary United States of America. Gay men in USA have been targeted by church, state and society alike for being the principal vectors of HIV infection.

Apart from the social and cultural stigma, AIDS seriously affects the economy as well. Sub Saharan Africa, which has the highest rates of infection, has seen reduced adult mortality rate and depleted adult population between 18 to 49 years of age. Since this chunk of population is also the most productive chunk, large scale infection of the epidemic leads to a huge burden on the economy

Government Response

Ever since its identification in 1981 in the United States of America, the disease has been a subject of widespread public discussion and governmental scrutiny. For years the association of the disease with sexual promiscuity and immorality among gay men meant that there was a delayed response from the governments to prevent future transmission and manage the present victims. Today, governments across the world run various public awareness campaigns to counter the pandemic. The church on the other hand insists that abstinence from sex is the only way to prevent the disease.

HIV Drugs and research have improved tremendously in recent years. Most of the popular anti-retroviral drugs have lost their patents. This means that companies can produce cheaper and generic varieties of the drug. In high income countries, people on HAART treatment can expect normal life expectancy. There is, however, no vaccine for HIV. A clinical trial of HIV vaccine RV144 was tried with some positive results. Similarly, when disabled HIV virus was inserted into the body of the Emma Whitehead in Pennsylvania who was suffering from cancer, it produced positive results. However, we are still far away from an effective cure.

Think Again Before Looking For Essay Writing Help

Think Again Before Looking For Essay Writing Help

 When we used to study in schools we were taught how to write essays but not having practice for so many years makes every student forget the proper and correct way of writing. Well, this is not right on the part of students but they are vulnerable. In schools, these writing works were not taken so critically and when they enter the colleges the real importance is realized. Though, it is not so very tricky to write papers also but half and improper knowledge creates a big problem for students. In fact, if students wish they can learn in a month to how to write the best paper. But sadly, students don’t have time to go in educational institutes and know how to write assignments again. In this critical situation, the only option in front of students is to ask for Essay Writing Help. Students can effortlessly find Australian Essay Writing companies providing their services in writing on the internet. Moreover, only half of your problem is resolved. But if you are considering about the authenticity of the company for that you have to make some research. Now a days, students cannot rely on any Cheap Essay Writing Australia company that comes in their way. A detailed research made by students can assist them locate the best writers online. Also, students can seek for assistance from their friends. The second most important step that needs to be followed while looking for writing assistance is to check the legality of the company. It is very much essential that the company that you choose is reputed and reliable to give quality and satisfactory services. If they fail to complete their promise it can be sturdy for you to work with the same company and of course you will again look for some different writing company. Get essay help and essay writing assistance online from our team of expert essay helpers. Submit your essay assignments and get best help for your essay writing.