Polybius, fragment of book 10, on the character of Scipio:It is generally agreed that Scipio was beneficent and magnanimous, but that he was also shrewd and discreet with a mind always concentrated on the object he had in view, would be conceded by none except those who associated with him and to whom his character stood clearly revealed.In this course, Scipio has appeared numerous times as an avatar of sorts for âthings to comeââ foreshadowing the demise of the Republic. What, in your view, connects Scipio, and his time, and Octavian/Augustus, and his own time? What similarities, and differences, do you see? Using this basic comparison/contrast, provide your own evaluation of our major course theme: the political struggle between the state and the individual. Be sure to justify your answers by making reference to specific examples from the course readings and class notes, and to argue a specific position. Your answer might cover the careers of other important figures (e.g. Marius, Cleopatra, Caesar), or major themes (e.g. the development of Roman imperialism and its consequences), but the organisation of your argument is wholly up to you.May.15thlecture 4First punic war: 264-241–Result: 20 years of war–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage to win–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy–Rome: excellent army, no well-established naval force–Result: statementTrireme–3 banks of oars–Corvus (boarding ramp)Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oarsNaval warfare in ancient worldRamsImmobillisation–roman idea: make it a land battle, on water–board using corvus/raven (but problems)–grapnel–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them–armoured sailors cannot swim very wellPolybius, on the corvus–Roman shipbuilding program-superhuman effort–But now, had to learn how to fight at sea-no real experience–Would have plenty of upsets, errors (storms too)– in the meantime:–256: 2 consuls Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos. Home, Other remained:–Marcus atilius regulus–255: defeated Carthaginians; camped at Tunis–Negotiations, rejected by Rome–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus- replaced local commanders–Romans crushed; regulus captured–romans crushed; regulus captured–With regulus- what is true and what is legend?–Deal with humiliation by mythologizing it!–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of massive snake–Legend- in captivity until 250–Gave parole to Carthaginians; sent to Rome to negotiate–In his speech to senate- urged no surrender–Returned to Carthage met his end–Regulus: reluctant here, duty> personal need–source: Horace-reliable?–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender–Warning to lax romans of his own day–Holds up regulus as ideal model–Intensely patriotic in period of civil war–Regulus death–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship–All of this: Romes north African invasion- not a success–More setbacks for Rome–254: fleet to Africa, rescue survivors–Defeated Carthaginian fleet, but then massive storm–Romans massive effort at Panormus-Sicily–250: lucius caecilius metellus, army, crushed Carthaginian attack–Huge triumph in rome, with 100 elephants–But then chickensDrepanum, 249, western coast of sicilyPublius Claudius pulcher–Frustrated by progress of siege of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)Decided to take offensiveAuspieces: the sacred chickensLet them drink, since they dont want to eatResult: romans suffered horrible defeatPulcher accused of sacrilege for killing scared chickens–War dragged on to an end with reverses/benefits for each side–241: Romans finally achieved naval victory, off Sicily–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar peace treaty–Indemnity: triggered mercenary revolt–The truceless war savage–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia–Carthage shattered–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal) to Spain rebuildWould lead to new struggleConsequences of the warFour main consequences1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia, paid reparations–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula–Lead to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica–Needed administrators: praetorship expanded, sent overseas2. widescale change in conduct of warfare–Previously Rome followed seasonal pattern: some experience–Now consistently kept armies in field all year round–Polybius Romans ambitious more daring, thinking of conquest3. Rome now a naval power–Needed too for control of ex. Corsica, Sardinia–Allowed Rome to project power outside Italy4. Significant increase in public spending: ships, armies–Army had logistical needs–Spawned rise of contractor class the publicani, paid by the state to build, supply, house,procure, etc.–Currency expanded, more issues: coins now also used to advertise Roman power (ex. Coin ofprow of ship) propagandaThe second Punic war 218-201The triumph of duty over individualism–Defining event of the roman republic before the civil wars–Significant and far-reaching consequences–Main sources: Polybius, Livy–Livy–Lived 59 BC AD 17-200 years after events f–From Padua–Knew personally Romes first emperor, Augustus–Whole work: cover beginning of Rome own day ex. 753-19, in 142 books- only 36 survive–Livy looked to various traditions–Oratory and fine writing: Cicero a model–Livy famously lazy, would not cross Rome to see a document–Sources? Other writers- make major use of Polybius–Selected and compiled info to suit his agenda–Often never mentions who he is using–Livy writing after gut-wrenching civil war–Aim: react to this dislocation by concentrating on values which made Rome great–Superior virtue, morality–Nobility–Character and courage of Romans–Other sources–Hannibals court historians lost–Letters and treaties, copied by Polybius– Writings of Scipio family?Major players in story dramatis personaeThe ScipiosThe Barcids–NB: multiple Scipios–Publius Cornelius Scipio–Consul 218; died 211–Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (the bald)–Brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio–Consul 222, died 211–Piblius Cornelius scipio africanus–Son of Publius Cornelius Scipio, nephew of Gnaeus–Ultimate victor in second Punic war–The other tem- the Barcids–Hamilcar Barca, general of 1st Punic war, d. 228, Spain–Father of Hannibal–Husdrubal the fair–Son- in law of Hamilcar, d. 221–Husdrubal Barca, general–Brother of Hannibal, d 207, Italy–Mago Barca, general–Brother of Hannibal, d 203, on board shipHannibal- not a crazed demon–Had read memoirs of Pyrrhus–Barcid dynasty in Spain Hellenistic style dynasty–Closer to Greek king than monster–Adept at Greco-Roman propaganda–Temple of Melqart (Hercules) in Grades (Cadiz, Spain)–12labours of Hercules: drove oxen of Geryon though Spain and Gaul over the Alps–Cacus (giant) on Aventine hill- steal oxen, Hercules killed himPunishment of Rome – grounded in Greek mythPosed as liberator of oppressed Greeks in Sicily, Italy–And: epic journey- like Alexander?–War broken down in phases:1, background to war- Barcids in Spain2, period between 218-216: Roman defeats3. period between 216-207: revival–War in Italy, propaganda campaigns by Hannibal–War in Spain–War in AfricaAnd in this: the triumph of duty, but the rise of the individual Scipio AfricanusBackground- the interwar years, 241-218–End of 1st Punic war–Hamilcar surrendered Mt. Eryx in Siciy–Mass resentment–And Truceless war (mercenary revolt)- future damage–Barcids powerful, choose Spain, new lease on life–Mines. Manpower, new beginning nova CarthageSpain would revive Carthage–228: Hamilcar dead; Hasdrubal the fair took over–At some point: Hasdrubal, treaty with Rome–Boundary of interests: river Ebro–clues: Romans preoccupied with Gauls (Italian Celts)–And also: war in lllyria (pirates, death of ambassador- and now new protectorates)–Lllyrian war= first protectorates in Greece–Romans at lsthmian Games–So: Roman policy curb Carthaginians in Spain, secure lllyria, hammer Gauls?–Before, during, after treaty- fateful decision–Some kind of agreement, based in fides, with Saguntum–Hannibal attacked Saguntum, south of Ebro river- not in violation of treaty–But quandary for Romans–Friendship bounded by fides with Rome–What to do? Honor treaty to far away people, or let them face fate?–If go to war, could trigger wider war–In do nothing, would allow Hannibal to get stronger–Or- part of the plan all along–The polish Guarantee, 1939–218: Saguntum surrendered–Roman Senate: dithered; delegatin to Hannibal–Eventually, Roman envoys Carthatge–Livy: Hannibal urged senate in Carthage to give up their treaty to provoke a warSurrender, sack of saguntm= plays into faous story Hannibal oath to hate Rome–War not roman fault, Hannibals falur–Carthaginians; rejected Roman demands and war began 218–Roman response: both consuls dispatched for war–Sent Publius Cornelius Scipio (cos. 218; father of Scipio Africanus) to Spain–Other cos. Tiberius Sempronius Lougus, sent to Sicily: target, Africa, and Carthage–Which did Hannibal do–Understood his own strengths, weaknesses–Would invade Italy, over the Alps (new Hercules/ Alexander)–Very dangerous endeavor–Navigation–Food–lack of mechanized transport–Precedence- Alexander the Great, Khawak pass in Afghanistan–Hannival would face huge problems, take many losses of men, animals, equipment–Some allies deserted, rather than cross Alps–Hostile tribes in Alps would add to problems–Scipio: would contest Hannibals crossing of phone river, southern FranceUnsuccessfulAfter this, way open to AlpsAgain, problems with allies, more, soldiers: more afraid of Alpine crossing than fighting RomansLivy: took 5 months for entire journey; 15 days, for AlpaConsiderable lossesCape lacinium inscription: 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry- tinyFloored RomansFirst confrontationTicinus River, 218 BC, northern ItalyHannibal: suborn Gauls, fight for him- liberator of ItalyTicinus 218May.20thLecture 5-LivyTrebbia 218Romans did best, but sempronius should have waitedTired; elephants; great pressure on line; December rain muddled thinsAmbush by MagoRomans were broken, although troops and both consuls escapedBut, major military disasterAfter the Trebbia, 218Romans shockedEnemy in ItalyTwo engagements lost, significant parts of army destroyedBut, what did romans have?AlliesResourcesProduct of early years, wars of expansion, conquest of ItalyPolybius: Romans had huge manpower reservesReports census figures for 225: 700K (or 634K)Of Romans alone :250000 adult males qualified for infantry service23000 adult males of equestrian standing cavalrytable illustrates sourcesother clues: the bronze plate at temple of Hera Lacinia at Croto in S. Italy (Cape Lacinium): 20Kinfantry, 6K cavalry, copied by PloybiusHannibal: major disadvantagesFor Hannibal to winNot destroy RomeCrush it on battlefield make peace ( norm in Hellenistic world)Manpower advantage? Use propagandaDismantle alliances..nearly worked217 new year, new consuls, new defeatsconsuls for 217Gnaeus Servilius Geminus (Servilius)Gaius Flaminius Nepos (Flaminius)Better job? Not to beWhy ?Flaminius: populist, opposed SenateTried to curtail financial activities of senatorsShowed lack of respect for mos maiorum: customs of the elders (i.e. respect your forefathers, theyare older and wiser)Tension between old and young a major theme in LivyThey were right would die in a very famous Roman disasterLivy uses Flaminius poor character to explain his fateSempronius: showed hubris, lostFlaminius: did not show Senate, elders.What did Flaminius do?Mad chase after HannibalNo reconnaissanceWalked into trap217 lake trasimeneHannibal: well- prepared position; plenty of timeForced romans to fight facing lake or mountainsBlocked exits: could only leave by narrow pathsRomans advanced onto plain; no security; did not notice Carthaginians; false camp to lure romansforwardProblems with fogRomans in marching order; weapons slung; not ready for battleAttacked from all sidesFlaminius killedVery seriousRomans in shock; consul dead; exits blockedMany drowned in the lakeLivy: 6000 escaped, only to surrenderEffect in Rome: terror at news of consuls deathWorse to comeTime of great emergency: what would Senate do?217 emergency measuresLivythe defence of Italy had faied the war would now be at home to save the citysenate appointed famous dictatorquintus fabius maximuscunctator, the delayerQFM emerges as literary foil against upstart, impetuous, young politiciansLater ally: cato the elder (famous conservative)QFMs strategy: harass supply lines; pick fights carefully; avoid a repeat of Trebbia or LakeTrasimeneMeanwhile:Servilius (other consul) helped to defend Rome: implicit comparison with FlaminiusLivy: was QFMs strategy working?Frustrating for some not to fight. E.g. minucius, master of cavalry (2 nd in command) for QFMElected as co-dictator, nearly loses lifeFor Livy: minucius recalls Flaminius, Sempronius: reckless, impetuous, arrogant, young, andstupid.But QFM s strategy workingTensions between Minucius and QFMLivy & Polybius : character coupletsOld, wise vs young, foolishPatient vs recklessPreviews: optimates vs populares in late Roman societyEventually QFMs position ended: return to consulsResults? Good for RomeCharacter: sold estates to ransom POWsNo major disasters, but people wanted victory.216 disaster216 quintus fabius maximus retired; new consulsgaius terentius varro (varro)Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Aemelius Paullus)Varro: like sempronius, like FlaminiusUnpopular with patriciansPopulist, left- wingAnti-conservativeDid not like QFMAemilius paullus = opposite of varro political opponent older, wiser, ex-consul (IIIyrian war)He and Varro are like gladiators: competitorsLivy uses sour relations presage a new disasterAway from senate, romans recruiting new armiesBut new omensStatues weep bloodCold springs become hotAnd worse.Warro did have initial successLike sempronius.cocky, boldAroused in him the passion to defeat Hannibal: make his nameHannibal: knew he could lure varro into an ambushUse romes aggressive/impetuous leadership against themEventually the two sides met at cannae, in ApuliaBefore Adrianople (AD 378) this was the most notorious roman disaster in historyAemilius paullus was killed in battleProblem: romes maniples, bad leadershipMore shook for rome: a consul killed, 80000 (?) soldiers killed in one day: eight legions and theirallies the size of four entire consular armiesWhat else?Servilius geminus, ex-consul, killedMinucius, ex-master of horse to QFM, killedA large number of senators who had volunteered to fight.. lost in the battleVarro? He escapedSurvivors- punishment battalionsFamous escapee- scipioFor perspective : Ammianus Marcellinus, on Adrianople (AD 378)Death of emperor valensDestruction of eastern field armyWhat did Hannibal doDid not follow up by marching on romeBut: did he intend to capture it?But the victory was, in any case, totalCannae: had some important consequencesSome roman allies deserted them (hennibals strategy)Anti-roman sentimente.g. capua, treaty with carthage: would share Italy as part of a Carthaginian protectorateTarentum, thurii- defectedSicily: hiero of Syracuse died; Hannibal fomented an uprising there seriousRomans: cancelled festivls looked to religious rites to appease the godsBuried alive Greeks and GaulsFabius pictor ( famous roman historian) sent to the oracle at DelphiWhat did the gods want the romans to doNew legionsFor the first time, boys under 17; 8000 slaves as wellHow did rome get through all thisStrength of characterLoyalty of the majority of their alliesSupport and courage of the peopleIndefatigable senate: never gave upOut of this calamity, romes identity would be forgedRestoration and revival: 216-202Rome rebuildsNew problems, but new leaders: including Scipio AfricanusWould undertake the reconquest of ItalyFight actions abroad, in spain and AfricaNew tactics, new legions, new armyAnd threat: to heart of state216-206Hannibal: wanted romes alliesAchieved capua; failed elsewhereBehind this: factional politicsIn rome: a new dictatorDisasters continued: e.g. consul-elect killed on campaign- Lucius postumius (L.23.24)So: rome facing not just Hannibal, but multiple enemies but still they keep goingStories in livy show: romes hold on Italy thenuousHannibal: plans elsewhere215: new front opened in IIIyria, against Macedonia ( 1st Macedonian war)Hannibal and Philip V of macedonTreaty copied by Polybius: curb Roman power, not destroy itSlowly, rome asserting itselfRewards loyal allies; punish the ones that strayedCampaniaSicilySardiniaWar much wider in scope than anything seen so far213: rome began reconquest of Campania: capuacapua: a terrible revengeleaders executedbut even now, other problemsrunning out of cashtime of crisis- senate gave up property, gold, silverallies gave all they hadjust enough to keep goingeventually, romans recovered Campania .209: QFM captured and sacked Tarentum30000 inhabitants: soldcapua and Tarentum showed: terrible price of defianceso by 209: capua, Campania, Tarentum, Sardinia: all quietin sicily, Claudius Marcellussiege of Syracuse famous: defence orchestrated by Archimedesmilitary ideas some seem to have worked, others perhapsfinally, Marcellus prevailedArchimedes famously killed by a roman soldierHis legacy?Archimedes palimpsestRestoration and revival: 216- 202Syracuse sacked brutallyRomans took agrigentum, other major cityCorn supply secured, sicily pacifiedThe final yearsSpainLong a sideshow to Italy212: roman forces, led by scipo(father)scipio killed; gnaeus scipio (calvus) quickly followedgreat shockagain, Romans able to take stock, regroup: on the verge of annihilation, they survivedRomans still lacked a consular commander…who would take scipios placeLivy no- one put name forward:Another desperate situation: needs a bold solutionScipioToo young; lacked experience to be a consulMajor break with traditionElected as a private citizen with imperiumWhat was scipio like?Very pious; a performer; and semi-legendary in his own lifetime211: scipo went to spainused his reputation, family authority, to help him210/209: captured new carthagedaring raid soldiers crossed lake myth, helped by Neptunefollow up battles: llipa, baeculamajor theme: new tactics, new flexibility, new abilitiesand, diplomacy: suborn massinissa, syphax, numidian allies208, at baecula similar tacticsdefeated Hasdrubal, fled to Italyscipio roman army now instrument to beat Hannibalspecificallycompetent generalshipinnovative taciticsuse of cavalry (Laelius)maniples as independent operatorsCarthaginians: looked for a decisive endgame in Italy208 Roman consuls were Marcellus ( of Syracuse fame) and crispinusat venusia, in Apulia, hanMay.22ndLecture 6Restoration and revival: 216-202The final yearsNew dictator: ManliusNew consuls elected:207: combined forces to faced Hasdrubal. In northern ItalyLivy: dramatic evocation of sceneforced march of picked troops, to get to Hasdrubal (Hannibal brother) before message could getto HannibalHannibal stranded in S. Italy: defeat a matter of timeCould not get reinforcementsNo easy access to suppliesCould not duplicate Romes alliance systemCould not detach allies permanentlyRomans ascendantLooked to the gods: went to Delphi: and then brought cult of Magna Mater, The Great Mother, toRome205-201Scipio finally elected as consul in 205Plunder: nearly 15,000 lbs of silverAnother result of the wars: enrichmentand, a further direct consequence: the need to keep successful generals in field—Pro-consuls, pro-praetors—Recognition of need to change system—Annual commands counter-productive—More consuls, praetors neededScipio nursing great ambitionAsked to be sent to Sicily: to get him to AfricaBut, QFM—Youthful arrogance of Varro, Flaminius, Sempronius, Minucius—Naked ambition—Dangerous recklessnessScipio finally got his waySenate hampered him withheld troops, moneyWhat did he do?—Volunteers, Cannae legions—Fleet from Romes allies—Took them to SicilyAfrica:Scipio ravaged countrysideWith Massinissa, beat Carthaginian leviesPeace agreed, then scupperHannibal recalled, along with MagoLivy, 30.20: Hannibal furiousBefore the final flight at Zama:Livy has the 2 meet: a very famous speechHannibal–Appeals to Scipio, compares himself to him–Hannibal old, Scipio young–Hannibal wiser: needs peace–Lost his brothers; defending his native city; asking for peaceScipio–Carthage is the aggressor–Too late to ask for peace–Youre finishedScipio and Hannibal prepared their forcesScipio innovativeDifference at Zama- Laelius and Massinissa, with cavalryHannibal lost his first battleZama a resounding Roman successScipio treated Hannibal well, let him stay in politicsCarthage sued for peace in the aftermathNegotiations including Philip V- Mac. Soldiers at ZamaAnd the Romans told Philip:The answer received from the roman senate was anything but favorable. They were told that theirking was looking for war, and if he went on as he was doing, he would very soon find it.An omen of things to comeEventually, Carthage made peaceTerms harsh—Gave up elephants, warships, most of army—Scipio burned the fleet in vies of the Carthaginians—Allied deserters beheaded; Roman deserters crucified—Huge indemnity: crippled Carthage for goodRoman allies (ex. Massinissa) were rewardedScipio: triumphant return to RomeWhat did he do?Scipio set an ominous precedentPaid a huge war bounty of 123,000 lbs of silver to his troopsIdea: loyalty to commander, not to stateTook epithet AfricanusScipio: 3rd c. BC celebrity imperator, a victor with assent of the godsDangerous idea:—Loyalty to commander > loyalty to state—Beginning of individualism > duty—Shape of things to comeHannibal:—Eventually fell out in Carthage—Romans came for him he fled to Antiochus, Hellenistic ruler of SyriaConsequences of second Punic WarCarthage was crippledRome: new, stronger version of itself: on brink of Med domination, fuelled by militaristic ideologyand flush with a hard-won victoryAll overseas Carthaginian territory now Roman and new admin needed so new praetors, newcampaigning to pacify Spain, new settlements: definite expansionRomes constitution changing: new praetors, pro-consuls, pro-praetors: the beginnings of theimperial administrationRomes reputation increasedIn 216, Rome was on brink of extinction. How was this avoided?–Resourced (think Pyrrhus)–Allies (think Pyrrhus)–Spirit–Courage–Good commanders–Core of resilience in the Senate, the people: the SPQRThe 2nd Punic War is a major event in understanding how Rome became an Empire later on, andunderstanding Roman Identity confident, militaristicLivy:–Rome defeated Hannibal by:–Staying strong–Honoring the gods–Staying true to the state–Following its moral principles–Rome was threatened by young, arrogant, impious men–L. admires Africanus, he sees in him some of the traits of his own timeStarship troopersTension: duty vs. life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessSociety of citizens and civiliansRoman imperialismExpansion and creation of a world empireDeliberate?Accidental?Combination?Imperialism in 2014 has an image problem can we avoid a negative judgment?ImperiumWould Romans understand our idea of imperialism?Roman expansion: deliberate acquisition of territory for commercial gain?Land-grab rush incompetition with others?Think of France, England, Belgium, Germany, in Africa, for exRomans would probably be perplexed if we assigned our idea of imperialism onto themHow should we understand it?Influential perspectives:V.I. Lenin: Imperialism. The highest state of CapitalismCome down to Defensive Imperialism vs. ExpansionismAccidental vs. DeliberateTake a look at eachDefensive ImperialismUntil recently: dominant ideaWars conducted in self-defenseCan we find justification in ancient texts? Sure!Theme here:Romans concerned about aggressive stance of neighbors ex. CarthageDefensive imperialism thesis very popular: groundIdea held sway until 1970sNew ideasW.V. Harris: war and imperialism in republican Rome, 327-70 BCBasic idea: Rome accustomed to continuous war benefits from war accrued, kept war goingCf. Schumpeter keep fighting, keep winning, keep fighting to keep winningExpansionism?Evidence?Art, slaves, influence, power, money, land all came with victory in warEvidence in ancient sources? Of course!Expansionism? Or Accidental/ Defensive?So: which idea do we favor?Harrisideas:—Romans placed value on martial activities—Cursus honorum included vital military steps—Supreme civil authority = supreme military authority—Warfare central to functioning of stateWhat about moder historians, their views?Mommsen: 19th cent. German interested in German nationalismSaw Romans: united Italy like Germany was being unitedGave Roman conquest a positive spinAnd Harris? Deeply affected by Vietnam War overseas adventures are bad, and lead to seriousproblemsDifficult to know which 1 we should favorRome: bad enemies Gauls, Carthage90 serious defeats recorded in the republicAlmost became extinct in 2nd P.W.Romans: can we understand their fear, apprehension? Does this justify pre-emptive strikes?Buthistory of late republic is full of ambitious men, looking for military glory Pompey,Caesar, Sulla, Marius: we will meet them allNo clear answer some case studies!Background:Main powers in MediterraneanCreated in aftermath of Alexanders death in 323Hellenistic kingdomsEast (Iraq/Iran all the way to Afghanistan, India): Seleucids (after Seleucus Nikator…
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