find an average for males, determine the total sum for males and divide by the number of males.

WEEK 4 DISCUSSION
TOPIC 1 Pulse Rate Analysis
Find the pulse rates from last week and determine the
average pulse rate for males and for females in the class. ToWEEK 4 DISCUSSION
TOPIC 1 Pulse Rate Analysis
Find the pulse rates from last week and determine the
average pulse rate for males and for females in the class. To find an average for females, determine the
total sum for females and divide by the number of females. To find an average
for males, determine the total sum for males and divide by the number of males.
As more students post their pulse rates, the sample size
will change… do not worry about that… just please use the samples available
the day you record your data! Note that
your % values may differ from other students as a result, and that is OK…just
go with what you calculated. Please do however double check your math.
Compare the two values. Is there a significant difference in
the values? To be significant, more than
a 5% difference in the rates must be present.
Show your math.
EXAMPLE: If the average pulse rate for males was 65 bpm and
for females was 75 bpm, use the highest value as your 100% level 65/75 x 100
will give us the 86.6% for a difference of 100 – 86.6 = 13.4 % difference
between males and females…which is definitely more than the minimum 5%
difference needed to be significant. So, yes in this example there is a
significant difference between males and females.
To access your computer calculator, go to START, PROGRAMS,
ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR or use a hand-held calculator. There is a file attached which you can use
for your work. Please record your answers in the text box or attach a work file
if you wish to do so. Please double
check your math.
If you notice that any value is highly unusual, you must
then record that fact and explain why you may be eliminating it from the
calculated averages.
Is there really a difference between male and female pulse
rates? Post your answer in the title of your new thread
Female average pulse rate:
Male average pulse rate:
Difference between the rates:
Is the difference significant?:
How would you improve this experiment to provide truly valid
results?
ROUGH WORK CAN BE
DONE BY COPY AND PASTING THE TABLE BELOW INTO A FILE AND THEN COPYING IT INTO
YOUR THREAD. If you edit an original
post to upgrade, correct or alter an answer,
the system does not send up a flag to let your instructor know that a
change has been made, so please leave a short reply message to make the
instructor aware that a change has been made.
Many thanks!

TOPIC 2 Breathing Rate Analysis
Normally, adults breath about 12 to 20 times per minute, up
to 30 times per minute when seriously exercising or hyper-ventilating and a
slow as 6 times per minute when sleeping or hypo-ventilating. You do NOT
breathe as fast as your heart beats (60-90 bpm)! Your sitting breath rate is your baseline.
The goal when exercising is to increase the breathe rate for more rapid gas
exchange but after a few minutes of intense exercise, the breath rate should
slow to an elevated but more stable rate which can be maintained for a long
time. This shift downward occurs quickly (in a few minutes) in an athlete but
takes longer in a couch potato. Immediately after exercise, the breath rate
usually returns to normal in as short as one minute but may take longer if you
are out of shape. If it takes longer than 3 minutes you are seriously out of
shape.
Count how many times you breathe in ONE MINUTE during the
following activities. To check your breathing rate, place your hand on your
upper abdomen and count each time it rises. Please repeat the exercise at least
3 times to get an average for yourself. Fill in the table as you complete each
step. If you cannot jog, please substitute an appropriate exercise and note
what you did. You can use the online second clock if you do not have a watch to
use: http://www.csgnetwork.com/timealarmclock.html. You can use the online
calculator found under START, PROGRAMS, ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR. If you have a
time crunch, then record your breath rate for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 to
get a minute rate.
You can copy and paste this table into your response.
Activity
Trial 1* give units
Trial 2
Trial 3
Average *2 decimal places
Sitting quietly
Jogging in place
Immediately after jogging
CHARACTERIZE YOUR BREATHING PATTERNS:
Just a note: Finger
oximeters are cheap and accurate and will give you your pulse and blood oxygen
levels. We aim for 100% oxygenation but
really 97 to 100% is excellent. Most people do not feel dizzy, tired or
confused until their oxygen levels drop below 90%. Below 85% is really when an asthmatic or
person with heart problems really needs to worry and probably should be on
oxygen support.
Yawning while at rest is a sign of under-oxygenation.

TOPIC 3
Urine diagnosis can be made by evaluating pH, specific
gravity, chemical content, crystals, clarity or cloudiness, color and odor. We will look just at color and odor.
ODOR: Fresh urine has a clean odor, but after a few hours
Nitrobacter start to breakdown the urine
to produce ammonia and ammonium. The odor will become fetid and quite offensive
with time. This is the odor one often encounters when walking into a nursing
home of dubious quality. If a person has
a urinary tract infection, the urine will
be cloudy instead of clear. If you are on a diet or have diabetes, the
urine may smell sweet due to the presence of ketones. Crash dieting can release enough ketones from
metabolized fat and protein to damage the kidneys. Pancreatic cancer, severe diabetes and
dieting can produce ketoacidosis (acids) which can destroy the delicate
nephrons leading to frequent painful urination.
COLOR: Normal urine appears a light amber or straw-colored.
If dehydrated, the urine will become darker yellow. If over-hydrated, such as after excessive
alcohol, water or sports drink consumption, the urine will be very light to
clear. When you take Vitamin B, the
urine will become bright yellow to iridescent yellow-green! In a new urinary tract infection, a pink
tinge implies fresh blood. In an older
urinary tract infection, a brown color (dead blood) appears and if there is
extensive liver and kidney damage the urine may appear black. There may be other reasons for color changes,
such as certain antibiotics which may change urine from yellow to red or
green. Green beer will make the urine
green. Red food coloring, beets and rhubarb
may make the urine red.
The old adage of 8 glasses a day x 12 ounces/glass = 96 ounces/day
is no longer true. Instead, think about how much you weigh and divide that
number in half. That’s how many ounces of water you should drink per day.
www.pbs.org/americaswalking/fuel/fueldrinking.html
This is a bit of an awkward topic…but still important…I
will not ask you to report your color or odor results but please do evaluate
your urine to determine if you are normal, over hydrated or dehydrated.
over hydrated (clear & pale)
normal (light amber to light yellow)
dehydrated (dark yellow to dark brown)
Beyond that you can discuss why this condition exists and
what recommendation you would make to yourself!
Topic 3: Urine Analysis – BIOL 160 6383 Human Biology (2162)
DEHYDRATION SKIN TEST: If you think you may be dehydrated,
try pinching the skin on the back of your hand…if the skin stays elevated
like a small mountain range..you are dehydrated! If you drink a glass of water and are only
slightly dehydrated, the “mountain range” should disappear in 20
minutes or so.

TOPIC 4 Kidneys
For years the tobacco industry claimed that there was no
proof that compounds found in smoke could cause lung cancer. Slowly the general public is accepting the
probable relationship between smoking and cancer.
Along a similar line, the beverage industry uses caffeine,
flavorings, preservatives and massive amounts of saccharides (sugar
substitutes) which are known to cause cancer and no one seems to worry. Many diabetic individuals and dieters believe
that consumption of sugar-free beverages is safe, but evidence is mounting to
indicate that may not be the case. These
noxious chemicals must be eliminated from the system and the logical site of
filtration is the kidneys.
Many “diet” drinks may be low in calories but they
contain appetite stimulants (caffeine) and while they may not contain the legal
“sugar” they may contain glucose which can directly be absorbed into
the blood from the stomach lining. Several popular diet drinks also contain
calories that do not have to be declared since the beverages are derived from
natural foods….and the calories are not added! The average “zero” beverage can
have over 1000 mg glucose per deciliter!
This legal deception is distressing.
It is slowly becoming clear that massive weight gains may be
associated with soda consumption.
Consider that the average medium drink at a soda fountain contains an
average of 450 calories! That is the
same as a BIG MAC! According to the
caloric estimates we made earlier, most people should consume an average of
2000 calories per day. The math here is
pretty simple….four medium drinks nearly equals your daily recommended
caloric intake! No wonder it is so hard
to lose weight! It it interesting that there are new commercials now promoting
the consumption of bottled water instead of canned pops.
The kidneys must filter the excess glucose and other
chemicals in our beverages. The rate of kidney cancer (12000 people per year in
the US die) and dialysis related to diabetes is rising yearly so it is just a
matter of time before it becomes a serious public issue.
Your job is to select a beverage do an online search of
drink dangers, with respect to the kidneys. Select one web site that seems
reliable and discusses a particular type of beverage…. and has not been
presented by another student….. and summarize the information for your
classmates. Please provide the web address. If you wish to select another type
of beverage…such as protein drinks, sports drinks, alcohol or any other
beverage…. you may do so if you are more interested in those beverages.

TOPIC 5 Citations and References
LEARNING HOW TO CREATE A REFERENCE AND CORRESPONDING
CITATIONS: The goal here is to learn APA
style reference and citation formatting.
To review the basic requirements for APA references and APA
citations that will be used for your report, download the MEDICAL REPORT
RESEARCH GUIDELINES file attached to the sample posting. Alternatively, you
can go to COURSE CONTENT > COURSE
RESOURCES > APA TUTORIAL or access the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
(OWL) link to APA style: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Please be aware that the OWL is constantly
changing so you must follow the editorial guidelines required by your
instructor and as set out in the MEDICAL REPORT RESEARCH GUIDELINES file.
REFERENCES: Put three
selected professional references into your post. (You can change your mind for
your report, if needed.) The references
must be listed in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s last name.
Each reference must follow APA format and have: Author(s) or Organization name
listed first, followed by the (Copyright year), then the Title. Journal Name.
volume #: issue #, page numbers. Since this is an online class, please be sure
to place Retrieval date and a valid Web
address or DOI (digial object identifier number) at the end of each reference.
CITATIONS: Select ONE of your references and record a short precise “quote”. Add the
citation. Then, paraphrase (reword) the quote into common language and add the
same citation. All paraphrased
information, statistics and data must have the source identified using a
citation. The citation must match a reference.
An APA citation uses the author’s last name or organization name and the
copyright year only. Please be sure to define all unusual words or acronyms.
See the sample post for an example and hints.
THREE REFERENCES: (In alphabetical order)WEEK 4 DISCUSSION TOPIC 1 Pulse Rate AnalysisFind the pulse rates from last week and determine the
average pulse rate for males and for females in the class. To find an average for females, determine the
total sum for females and divide by the number of females. To find an average
for males, determine the total sum for males and divide by the number of males.As more students post their pulse rates, the sample size
will change… do not worry about that… just please use the samples available
the day you record your data! Note that
your % values may differ from other students as a result, and that is OK…just
go with what you calculated. Please do however double check your math.Compare the two values. Is there a significant difference in
the values? To be significant, more than
a 5% difference in the rates must be present.
Show your math. EXAMPLE: If the average pulse rate for males was 65 bpm and
for females was 75 bpm, use the highest value as your 100% level 65/75 x 100
will give us the 86.6% for a difference of 100 – 86.6 = 13.4 % difference
between males and females…which is definitely more than the minimum 5%
difference needed to be significant. So, yes in this example there is a
significant difference between males and females.To access your computer calculator, go to START, PROGRAMS,
ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR or use a hand-held calculator. There is a file attached which you can use
for your work. Please record your answers in the text box or attach a work file
if you wish to do so. Please double
check your math.If you notice that any value is highly unusual, you must
then record that fact and explain why you may be eliminating it from the
calculated averages. Is there really a difference between male and female pulse
rates? Post your answer in the title of your new threadFemale average pulse rate:Male average pulse rate:Difference between the rates:Is the difference significant?:How would you improve this experiment to provide truly valid
results?ROUGH WORK CAN BE
DONE BY COPY AND PASTING THE TABLE BELOW INTO A FILE AND THEN COPYING IT INTO
YOUR THREAD. If you edit an original
post to upgrade, correct or alter an answer,
the system does not send up a flag to let your instructor know that a
change has been made, so please leave a short reply message to make the
instructor aware that a change has been made.
Many thanks!TOPIC 2 Breathing Rate AnalysisNormally, adults breath about 12 to 20 times per minute, up
to 30 times per minute when seriously exercising or hyper-ventilating and a
slow as 6 times per minute when sleeping or hypo-ventilating. You do NOT
breathe as fast as your heart beats (60-90 bpm)! Your sitting breath rate is your baseline.
The goal when exercising is to increase the breathe rate for more rapid gas
exchange but after a few minutes of intense exercise, the breath rate should
slow to an elevated but more stable rate which can be maintained for a long
time. This shift downward occurs quickly (in a few minutes) in an athlete but
takes longer in a couch potato. Immediately after exercise, the breath rate
usually returns to normal in as short as one minute but may take longer if you
are out of shape. If it takes longer than 3 minutes you are seriously out of
shape. Count how many times you breathe in ONE MINUTE during the
following activities. To check your breathing rate, place your hand on your
upper abdomen and count each time it rises. Please repeat the exercise at least
3 times to get an average for yourself. Fill in the table as you complete each
step. If you cannot jog, please substitute an appropriate exercise and note
what you did. You can use the online second clock if you do not have a watch to
use: http://www.csgnetwork.com/timealarmclock.html. You can use the online
calculator found under START, PROGRAMS, ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR. If you have a
time crunch, then record your breath rate for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 to
get a minute rate.You can copy and paste this table into your response.ActivityTrial 1* give unitsTrial 2Trial 3Average *2 decimal placesSitting quietlyJogging in placeImmediately after jogging CHARACTERIZE YOUR BREATHING PATTERNS:Just a note: Finger
oximeters are cheap and accurate and will give you your pulse and blood oxygen
levels. We aim for 100% oxygenation but
really 97 to 100% is excellent. Most people do not feel dizzy, tired or
confused until their oxygen levels drop below 90%. Below 85% is really when an asthmatic or
person with heart problems really needs to worry and probably should be on
oxygen support.Yawning while at rest is a sign of under-oxygenation. TOPIC 3 Urine diagnosis can be made by evaluating pH, specific
gravity, chemical content, crystals, clarity or cloudiness, color and odor. We will look just at color and odor. ODOR: Fresh urine has a clean odor, but after a few hours
Nitrobacter start to breakdown the urine
to produce ammonia and ammonium. The odor will become fetid and quite offensive
with time. This is the odor one often encounters when walking into a nursing
home of dubious quality. If a person has
a urinary tract infection, the urine will
be cloudy instead of clear. If you are on a diet or have diabetes, the
urine may smell sweet due to the presence of ketones. Crash dieting can release enough ketones from
metabolized fat and protein to damage the kidneys. Pancreatic cancer, severe diabetes and
dieting can produce ketoacidosis (acids) which can destroy the delicate
nephrons leading to frequent painful urination. COLOR: Normal urine appears a light amber or straw-colored.
If dehydrated, the urine will become darker yellow. If over-hydrated, such as after excessive
alcohol, water or sports drink consumption, the urine will be very light to
clear. When you take Vitamin B, the
urine will become bright yellow to iridescent yellow-green! In a new urinary tract infection, a pink
tinge implies fresh blood. In an older
urinary tract infection, a brown color (dead blood) appears and if there is
extensive liver and kidney damage the urine may appear black. There may be other reasons for color changes,
such as certain antibiotics which may change urine from yellow to red or
green. Green beer will make the urine
green. Red food coloring, beets and rhubarb
may make the urine red.The old adage of 8 glasses a day x 12 ounces/glass = 96 ounces/day
is no longer true. Instead, think about how much you weigh and divide that
number in half. That’s how many ounces of water you should drink per day.
www.pbs.org/americaswalking/fuel/fueldrinking.html This is a bit of an awkward topic…but still important…I
will not ask you to report your color or odor results but please do evaluate
your urine to determine if you are normal, over hydrated or dehydrated. over hydrated (clear & pale)normal (light amber to light yellow)dehydrated (dark yellow to dark brown) Beyond that you can discuss why this condition exists and
what recommendation you would make to yourself!Topic 3: Urine Analysis – BIOL 160 6383 Human Biology (2162)DEHYDRATION SKIN TEST: If you think you may be dehydrated,
try pinching the skin on the back of your hand…if the skin stays elevated
like a small mountain range..you are dehydrated! If you drink a glass of water and are only
slightly dehydrated, the “mountain range” should disappear in 20
minutes or so.TOPIC 4 KidneysFor years the tobacco industry claimed that there was no
proof that compounds found in smoke could cause lung cancer. Slowly the general public is accepting the
probable relationship between smoking and cancer. Along a similar line, the beverage industry uses caffeine,
flavorings, preservatives and massive amounts of saccharides (sugar
substitutes) which are known to cause cancer and no one seems to worry. Many diabetic individuals and dieters believe
that consumption of sugar-free beverages is safe, but evidence is mounting to
indicate that may not be the case. These
noxious chemicals must be eliminated from the system and the logical site of
filtration is the kidneys. Many “diet” drinks may be low in calories but they
contain appetite stimulants (caffeine) and while they may not contain the legal
“sugar” they may contain glucose which can directly be absorbed into
the blood from the stomach lining. Several popular diet drinks also contain
calories that do not have to be declared since the beverages are derived from
natural foods….and the calories are not added! The average “zero” beverage can
have over 1000 mg glucose per deciliter!
This legal deception is distressing. It is slowly becoming clear that massive weight gains may be
associated with soda consumption.
Consider that the average medium drink at a soda fountain contains an
average of 450 calories! That is the
same as a BIG MAC! According to the
caloric estimates we made earlier, most people should consume an average of
2000 calories per day. The math here is
pretty simple….four medium drinks nearly equals your daily recommended
caloric intake! No wonder it is so hard
to lose weight! It it interesting that there are new commercials now promoting
the consumption of bottled water instead of canned pops. The kidneys must filter the excess glucose and other
chemicals in our beverages. The rate of kidney cancer (12000 people per year in
the US die) and dialysis related to diabetes is rising yearly so it is just a
matter of time before it becomes a serious public issue. Your job is to select a beverage do an online search of
drink dangers, with respect to the kidneys. Select one web site that seems
reliable and discusses a particular type of beverage…. and has not been
presented by another student….. and summarize the information for your
classmates. Please provide the web address. If you wish to select another type
of beverage…such as protein drinks, sports drinks, alcohol or any other
beverage…. you may do so if you are more interested in those beverages.TOPIC 5 Citations and ReferencesLEARNING HOW TO CREATE A REFERENCE AND CORRESPONDING
CITATIONS: The goal here is to learn APA
style reference and citation formatting. To review the basic requirements for APA references and APA
citations that will be used for your report, download the MEDICAL REPORT
RESEARCH GUIDELINES file attached to the sample posting. Alternatively, you
can go to COURSE CONTENT > COURSE
RESOURCES > APA TUTORIAL or access the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
(OWL) link to APA style: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Please be aware that the OWL is constantly
changing so you must follow the editorial guidelines required by your
instructor and as set out in the MEDICAL REPORT RESEARCH GUIDELINES file.REFERENCES: Put three
selected professional references into your post. (You can change your mind for
your report, if needed.) The references
must be listed in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s last name.
Each reference must follow APA format and have: Author(s) or Organization name
listed first, followed by the (Copyright year), then the Title. Journal Name.
volume #: issue #, page numbers. Since this is an online class, please be sure
to place Retrieval date and a valid Web
address or DOI (digial object identifier number) at the end of each reference.CITATIONS: Select ONE of your references and record a short precise “quote”. Add the
citation. Then, paraphrase (reword) the quote into common language and add the
same citation. All paraphrased
information, statistics and data must have the source identified using a
citation. The citation must match a reference.
An APA citation uses the author’s last name or organization name and the
copyright year only. Please be sure to define all unusual words or acronyms.See the sample post for an example and hints.THREE REFERENCES: (In alphabetical order) To find an average
for males, determine the total sum for males and divide by the number of males.
As more students post their pulse rates, the sample size
will change… do not worry about that… just please use the samples available
the day you record your data! Note that
your % values may differ from other students as a result, and that is OK…just
go with what you calculated. Please do however double check your math.
Compare the two values. Is there a significant difference in
the values? To be significant, more than
a 5% difference in the rates must be present.
Show your math.
EXAMPLE: If the average pulse rate for males was 65 bpm and
for females was 75 bpm, use the highest value as your 100% level 65/75 x 100
will give us the 86.6% for a difference of 100 – 86.6 = 13.4 % difference
between males and females…which is definitely more than the minimum 5%
difference needed to be significant. So, yes in this example there is a
significant difference between males and females.
To access your computer calculator, go to START, PROGRAMS,
ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR or use a hand-held calculator. There is a file attached which you can use
for your work. Please record your answers in the text box or attach a work file
if you wish to do so. Please double
check your math.
If you notice that any value is highly unusual, you must
then record that fact and explain why you may be eliminating it from the
calculated averages.
Is there really a difference between male and female pulse
rates? Post your answer in the title of your new thread
Female average pulse rate:
Male average pulse rate:
Difference between the rates:
Is the difference significant?:
How would you improve this experiment to provide truly valid
results?
ROUGH WORK CAN BE
DONE BY COPY AND PASTING THE TABLE BELOW INTO A FILE AND THEN COPYING IT INTO
YOUR THREAD. If you edit an original
post to upgrade, correct or alter an answer,
the system does not send up a flag to let your instructor know that a
change has been made, so please leave a short reply message to make the
instructor aware that a change has been made.
Many thanks!

TOPIC 2 Breathing Rate Analysis
Normally, adults breath about 12 to 20 times per minute, up
to 30 times per minute when seriously exercising or hyper-ventilating and a
slow as 6 times per minute when sleeping or hypo-ventilating. You do NOT
breathe as fast as your heart beats (60-90 bpm)! Your sitting breath rate is your baseline.
The goal when exercising is to increase the breathe rate for more rapid gas
exchange but after a few minutes of intense exercise, the breath rate should
slow to an elevated but more stable rate which can be maintained for a long
time. This shift downward occurs quickly (in a few minutes) in an athlete but
takes longer in a couch potato. Immediately after exercise, the breath rate
usually returns to normal in as short as one minute but may take longer if you
are out of shape. If it takes longer than 3 minutes you are seriously out of
shape.
Count how many times you breathe in ONE MINUTE during the
following activities. To check your breathing rate, place your hand on your
upper abdomen and count each time it rises. Please repeat the exercise at least
3 times to get an average for yourself. Fill in the table as you complete each
step. If you cannot jog, please substitute an appropriate exercise and note
what you did. You can use the online second clock if you do not have a watch to
use: http://www.csgnetwork.com/timealarmclock.html. You can use the online
calculator found under START, PROGRAMS, ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR. If you have a
time crunch, then record your breath rate for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 to
get a minute rate.
You can copy and paste this table into your response.
Activity
Trial 1* give units
Trial 2
Trial 3
Average *2 decimal places
Sitting quietly
Jogging in place
Immediately after jogging
CHARACTERIZE YOUR BREATHING PATTERNS:
Just a note: Finger
oximeters are cheap and accurate and will give you your pulse and blood oxygen
levels. We aim for 100% oxygenation but
really 97 to 100% is excellent. Most people do not feel dizzy, tired or
confused until their oxygen levels drop below 90%. Below 85% is really when an asthmatic or
person with heart problems really needs to worry and probably should be on
oxygen support.
Yawning while at rest is a sign of under-oxygenation.

TOPIC 3
Urine diagnosis can be made by evaluating pH, specific
gravity, chemical content, crystals, clarity or cloudiness, color and odor. We will look just at color and odor.
ODOR: Fresh urine has a clean odor, but after a few hours
Nitrobacter start to breakdown the urine
to produce ammonia and ammonium. The odor will become fetid and quite offensive
with time. This is the odor one often encounters when walking into a nursing
home of dubious quality. If a person has
a urinary tract infection, the urine will
be cloudy instead of clear. If you are on a diet or have diabetes, the
urine may smell sweet due to the presence of ketones. Crash dieting can release enough ketones from
metabolized fat and protein to damage the kidneys. Pancreatic cancer, severe diabetes and
dieting can produce ketoacidosis (acids) which can destroy the delicate
nephrons leading to frequent painful urination.
COLOR: Normal urine appears a light amber or straw-colored.
If dehydrated, the urine will become darker yellow. If over-hydrated, such as after excessive
alcohol, water or sports drink consumption, the urine will be very light to
clear. When you take Vitamin B, the
urine will become bright yellow to iridescent yellow-green! In a new urinary tract infection, a pink
tinge implies fresh blood. In an older
urinary tract infection, a brown color (dead blood) appears and if there is
extensive liver and kidney damage the urine may appear black. There may be other reasons for color changes,
such as certain antibiotics which may change urine from yellow to red or
green. Green beer will make the urine
green. Red food coloring, beets and rhubarb
may make the urine red.
The old adage of 8 glasses a day x 12 ounces/glass = 96 ounces/day
is no longer true. Instead, think about how much you weigh and divide that
number in half. That’s how many ounces of water you should drink per day.
www.pbs.org/americaswalking/fuel/fueldrinking.html
This is a bit of an awkward topic…but still important…I
will not ask you to report your color or odor results but please do evaluate
your urine to determine if you are normal, over hydrated or dehydrated.
over hydrated (clear & pale)
normal (light amber to light yellow)
dehydrated (dark yellow to dark brown)
Beyond that you can discuss why this condition exists and
what recommendation you would make to yourself!
Topic 3: Urine Analysis – BIOL 160 6383 Human Biology (2162)
DEHYDRATION SKIN TEST: If you think you may be dehydrated,
try pinching the skin on the back of your hand…if the skin stays elevated
like a small mountain range..you are dehydrated! If you drink a glass of water and are only
slightly dehydrated, the “mountain range” should disappear in 20
minutes or so.

TOPIC 4 Kidneys
For years the tobacco industry claimed that there was no
proof that compounds found in smoke could cause lung cancer. Slowly the general public is accepting the
probable relationship between smoking and cancer.
Along a similar line, the beverage industry uses caffeine,
flavorings, preservatives and massive amounts of saccharides (sugar
substitutes) which are known to cause cancer and no one seems to worry. Many diabetic individuals and dieters believe
that consumption of sugar-free beverages is safe, but evidence is mounting to
indicate that may not be the case. These
noxious chemicals must be eliminated from the system and the logical site of
filtration is the kidneys.
Many “diet” drinks may be low in calories but they
contain appetite stimulants (caffeine) and while they may not contain the legal
“sugar” they may contain glucose which can directly be absorbed into
the blood from the stomach lining. Several popular diet drinks also contain
calories that do not have to be declared since the beverages are derived from
natural foods….and the calories are not added! The average “zero” beverage can
have over 1000 mg glucose per deciliter!
This legal deception is distressing.
It is slowly becoming clear that massive weight gains may be
associated with soda consumption.
Consider that the average medium drink at a soda fountain contains an
average of 450 calories! That is the
same as a BIG MAC! According to the
caloric estimates we made earlier, most people should consume an average of
2000 calories per day. The math here is
pretty simple….four medium drinks nearly equals your daily recommended
caloric intake! No wonder it is so hard
to lose weight! It it interesting that there are new commercials now promoting
the consumption of bottled water instead of canned pops.
The kidneys must filter the excess glucose and other
chemicals in our beverages. The rate of kidney cancer (12000 people per year in
the US die) and dialysis related to diabetes is rising yearly so it is just a
matter of time before it becomes a serious public issue.
Your job is to select a beverage do an online search of
drink dangers, with respect to the kidneys. Select one web site that seems
reliable and discusses a particular type of beverage…. and has not been
presented by another student….. and summarize the information for your
classmates. Please provide the web address. If you wish to select another type
of beverage…such as protein drinks, sports drinks, alcohol or any other
beverage…. you may do so if you are more interested in those beverages.

TOPIC 5 Citations and References
LEARNING HOW TO CREATE A REFERENCE AND CORRESPONDING
CITATIONS: The goal here is to learn APA
style reference and citation formatting.
To review the basic requirements for APA references and APA
citations that will be used for your report, download the MEDICAL REPORT
RESEARCH GUIDELINES file attached to the sample posting. Alternatively, you
can go to COURSE CONTENT > COURSE
RESOURCES > APA TUTORIAL or access the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
(OWL) link to APA style: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Please be aware that the OWL is constantly
changing so you must follow the editorial guidelines required by your
instructor and as set out in the MEDICAL REPORT RESEARCH GUIDELINES file.
REFERENCES: Put three
selected professional references into your post. (You can change your mind for
your report, if needed.) The references
must be listed in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s last name.
Each reference must follow APA format and have: Author(s) or Organization name
listed first, followed by the (Copyright year), then the Title. Journal Name.
volume #: issue #, page numbers. Since this is an online class, please be sure
to place Retrieval date and a valid Web
address or DOI (digial object identifier number) at the end of each reference.
CITATIONS: Select ONE of your references and record a short precise “quote”. Add the
citation. Then, paraphrase (reword) the quote into common language and add the
same citation. All paraphrased
information, statistics and data must have the source identified using a
citation. The citation must match a reference.
An APA citation uses the author’s last name or organization name and the
copyright year only. Please be sure to define all unusual words or acronyms.
See the sample post for an example and hints.
THREE REFERENCES: (In alphabetical order)WEEK 4 DISCUSSION TOPIC 1 Pulse Rate AnalysisFind the pulse rates from last week and determine the
average pulse rate for males and for females in the class. To find an average for females, determine the
total sum for females and divide by the number of females. To find an average
for males, determine the total sum for males and divide by the number of males.As more students post their pulse rates, the sample size
will change… do not worry about that… just please use the samples available
the day you record your data! Note that
your % values may differ from other students as a result, and that is OK…just
go with what you calculated. Please do however double check your math.Compare the two values. Is there a significant difference in
the values? To be significant, more than
a 5% difference in the rates must be present.
Show your math. EXAMPLE: If the average pulse rate for males was 65 bpm and
for females was 75 bpm, use the highest value as your 100% level 65/75 x 100
will give us the 86.6% for a difference of 100 – 86.6 = 13.4 % difference
between males and females…which is definitely more than the minimum 5%
difference needed to be significant. So, yes in this example there is a
significant difference between males and females.To access your computer calculator, go to START, PROGRAMS,
ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR or use a hand-held calculator. There is a file attached which you can use
for your work. Please record your answers in the text box or attach a work file
if you wish to do so. Please double
check your math.If you notice that any value is highly unusual, you must
then record that fact and explain why you may be eliminating it from the
calculated averages. Is there really a difference between male and female pulse
rates? Post your answer in the title of your new threadFemale average pulse rate:Male average pulse rate:Difference between the rates:Is the difference significant?:How would you improve this experiment to provide truly valid
results?ROUGH WORK CAN BE
DONE BY COPY AND PASTING THE TABLE BELOW INTO A FILE AND THEN COPYING IT INTO
YOUR THREAD. If you edit an original
post to upgrade, correct or alter an answer,
the system does not send up a flag to let your instructor know that a
change has been made, so please leave a short reply message to make the
instructor aware that a change has been made.
Many thanks!TOPIC 2 Breathing Rate AnalysisNormally, adults breath about 12 to 20 times per minute, up
to 30 times per minute when seriously exercising or hyper-ventilating and a
slow as 6 times per minute when sleeping or hypo-ventilating. You do NOT
breathe as fast as your heart beats (60-90 bpm)! Your sitting breath rate is your baseline.
The goal when exercising is to increase the breathe rate for more rapid gas
exchange but after a few minutes of intense exercise, the breath rate should
slow to an elevated but more stable rate which can be maintained for a long
time. This shift downward occurs quickly (in a few minutes) in an athlete but
takes longer in a couch potato. Immediately after exercise, the breath rate
usually returns to normal in as short as one minute but may take longer if you
are out of shape. If it takes longer than 3 minutes you are seriously out of
shape. Count how many times you breathe in ONE MINUTE during the
following activities. To check your breathing rate, place your hand on your
upper abdomen and count each time it rises. Please repeat the exercise at least
3 times to get an average for yourself. Fill in the table as you complete each
step. If you cannot jog, please substitute an appropriate exercise and note
what you did. You can use the online second clock if you do not have a watch to
use: http://www.csgnetwork.com/timealarmclock.html. You can use the online
calculator found under START, PROGRAMS, ACCESSORIES, CALCULATOR. If you have a
time crunch, then record your breath rate for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 to
get a minute rate.You can copy and paste this table into your response.ActivityTrial 1* give unitsTrial 2Trial 3Average *2 decimal placesSitting quietlyJogging in placeImmediately after jogging CHARACTERIZE YOUR BREATHING PATTERNS:Just a note: Finger
oximeters are cheap and accurate and will give you your pulse and blood oxygen
levels. We aim for 100% oxygenation but
really 97 to 100% is excellent. Most people do not feel dizzy, tired or
confused until their oxygen levels drop below 90%. Below 85% is really when an asthmatic or
person with heart problems really needs to worry and probably should be on
oxygen support.Yawning while at rest is a sign of under-oxygenation. TOPIC 3 Urine diagnosis can be made by evaluating pH, specific
gravity, chemical content, crystals, clarity or cloudiness, color and odor. We will look just at color and odor. ODOR: Fresh urine has a clean odor, but after a few hours
Nitrobacter start to breakdown the urine
to produce ammonia and ammonium. The odor will become fetid and quite offensive
with time. This is the odor one often encounters when walking into a nursing
home of dubious quality. If a person has
a urinary tract infection, the urine will
be cloudy instead of clear. If you are on a diet or have diabetes, the
urine may smell sweet due to the presence of ketones. Crash dieting can release enough ketones from
metabolized fat and protein to damage the kidneys. Pancreatic cancer, severe diabetes and
dieting can produce ketoacidosis (acids) which can destroy the delicate
nephrons leading to frequent painful urination. COLOR: Normal urine appears a light amber or straw-colored.
If dehydrated, the urine will become darker yellow. If over-hydrated, such as after excessive
alcohol, water or sports drink consumption, the urine will be very light to
clear. When you take Vitamin B, the
urine will become bright yellow to iridescent yellow-green! In a new urinary tract infection, a pink
tinge implies fresh blood. In an older
urinary tract infection, a brown color (dead blood) appears and if there is
extensive liver and kidney damage the urine may appear black. There may be other reasons for color changes,
such as certain antibiotics which may change urine from yellow to red or
green. Green beer will make the urine
green. Red food coloring, beets and rhubarb
may make the urine red.The old adage of 8 glasses a day x 12 ounces/glass = 96 ounces/day
is no longer true. Instead, think about how much you weigh and divide that
number in half. That’s how many ounces of water you should drink per day.
www.pbs.org/americaswalking/fuel/fueldrinking.html This is a bit of an awkward topic…but still important…I
will not ask you to report your color or odor results but please do evaluate
your urine to determine if you are normal, over hydrated or dehydrated. over hydrated (clear & pale)normal (light amber to light yellow)dehydrated (dark yellow to dark brown) Beyond that you can discuss why this condition exists and
what recommendation you would make to yourself!Topic 3: Urine Analysis – BIOL 160 6383 Human Biology (2162)DEHYDRATION SKIN TEST: If you think you may be dehydrated,
try pinching the skin on the back of your hand…if the skin stays elevated
like a small mountain range..you are dehydrated! If you drink a glass of water and are only
slightly dehydrated, the “mountain range” should disappear in 20
minutes or so.TOPIC 4 KidneysFor years the tobacco industry claimed that there was no
proof that compounds found in smoke could cause lung cancer. Slowly the general public is accepting the
probable relationship between smoking and cancer. Along a similar line, the beverage industry uses caffeine,
flavorings, preservatives and massive amounts of saccharides (sugar
substitutes) which are known to cause cancer and no one seems to worry. Many diabetic individuals and dieters believe
that consumption of sugar-free beverages is safe, but evidence is mounting to
indicate that may not be the case. These
noxious chemicals must be eliminated from the system and the logical site of
filtration is the kidneys. Many “diet” drinks may be low in calories but they
contain appetite stimulants (caffeine) and while they may not contain the legal
“sugar” they may contain glucose which can directly be absorbed into
the blood from the stomach lining. Several popular diet drinks also contain
calories that do not have to be declared since the beverages are derived from
natural foods….and the calories are not added! The average “zero” beverage can
have over 1000 mg glucose per deciliter!
This legal deception is distressing. It is slowly becoming clear that massive weight gains may be
associated with soda consumption.
Consider that the average medium drink at a soda fountain contains an
average of 450 calories! That is the
same as a BIG MAC! According to the
caloric estimates we made earlier, most people should consume an average of
2000 calories per day. The math here is
pretty simple….four medium drinks nearly equals your daily recommended
caloric intake! No wonder it is so hard
to lose weight! It it interesting that there are new commercials now promoting
the consumption of bottled water instead of canned pops. The kidneys must filter the excess glucose and other
chemicals in our beverages. The rate of kidney cancer (12000 people per year in
the US die) and dialysis related to diabetes is rising yearly so it is just a
matter of time before it becomes a serious public issue. Your job is to select a beverage do an online search of
drink dangers, with respect to the kidneys. Select one web site that seems
reliable and discusses a particular type of beverage…. and has not been
presented by another student….. and summarize the information for your
classmates. Please provide the web address. If you wish to select another type
of beverage…such as protein drinks, sports drinks, alcohol or any other
beverage…. you may do so if you are more interested in those beverages.TOPIC 5 Citations and ReferencesLEARNING HOW TO CREATE A REFERENCE AND CORRESPONDING
CITATIONS: The goal here is to learn APA
style reference and citation formatting. To review the basic requirements for APA references and APA
citations that will be used for your report, download the MEDICAL REPORT
RESEARCH GUIDELINES file attached to the sample posting. Alternatively, you
can go to COURSE CONTENT > COURSE
RESOURCES > APA TUTORIAL or access the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
(OWL) link to APA style: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Please be aware that the OWL is constantly
changing so you must follow the editorial guidelines required by your
instructor and as set out in the MEDICAL REPORT RESEARCH GUIDELINES file.REFERENCES: Put three
selected professional references into your post. (You can change your mind for
your report, if needed.) The references
must be listed in alphabetical order, based on the first author’s last name.
Each reference must follow APA format and have: Author(s) or Organization name
listed first, followed by the (Copyright year), then the Title. Journal Name.
volume #: issue #, page numbers. Since this is an online class, please be sure
to place Retrieval date and a valid Web
address or DOI (digial object identifier number) at the end of each reference.CITATIONS: Select ONE of your references and record a short precise “quote”. Add the
citation. Then, paraphrase (reword) the quote into common language and add the
same citation. All paraphrased
information, statistics and data must have the source identified using a
citation. The citation must match a reference.
An APA citation uses the author’s last name or organization name and the
copyright year only. Please be sure to define all unusual words or acronyms.See the sample post for an example and hints.THREE REFERENCES: (In alphabetical order)

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