Identify, analyze, and discuss the components that comprise a valid evidence-based research study

week 2Details:Identify, analyze, and discuss the components that comprise a valid evidence-based research study.Based on the information compiled above, interview a health care leader about his/her experiences related to using evidence-based research to drive changes in practices in his/her facility.Write a report (1,000-1,250 words) of your findings. Include the following in your report:1) The changes that the health care leader has been involved in implementing.2) How strong did the leader feel the research on the topic was? Why?3) Have they ever rejected research findings? Why or why not?4) Include any concerns they have had or resistance they have experienced when implementing changes based on research.5) Analyze your findings as they apply to the components of evidence-based research.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 3Details:1) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), compare and contrast the major elements of the reports by Coyne et al. and Messina et al., listed in the Module 2 Readings.2) Complete the “Coyne and Messina Articles Analysis.” Study the information in the right-side column related to the Coyne, et al. study, which identifies the required elements as found in the reading. Complete the information for the Messina et al. article by identifying the required elements from the article.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 3Details:1) Choose a research study article of interest to you.2) Refer to the study you choose and complete “Assessing a Research Study.”3) Identify an article that directly references your chosen study and compare it to your findings. Does this article refute or confirm the study’s findings?4) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) that analyzes and summarizes your findings.5) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.6) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful compleweek 4Details:1) Write a paper of 1,000-1,250 words regarding the statistical significance of outcomes as presented in Messina’s, et al. article “The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals.”2) Assess the appropriateness of the statistics used by referring to the chart presented in the Module 4 lecture and the resource “Statistical Assessment.”3) Discuss the value of statistical significance vs. pragmatic usefulness.4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.5) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 5Details:1) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) regarding the use of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient by Messina, et al. in “The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals,” listed in the module readings.2) Comment on what variables were used; whether it answered the research question; and whether the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is appropriately used, given the requirements of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.wee 5Details:Complete “Practice Exercise 11” (page 157) and “Practice Exercise 11” (page 180) in the textbook. For the data set listed, use Excel to extract the mean and standard deviation for the sample of lengths of stay for cardiac patients. Use the following Excel steps:1) Enter the data set into Excel.2) Click on the Data tab at the top.3) Highlight your data set with your mouse.4) Click on the Data Analysis tab at the top right.5) Click on Descriptive Statistics in the analysis tool list.6) Find the mean and standard deviation of the data sets.7) Send the results to instructor via e-mail, along with your analysis of the description of the data set.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 6Details:A drug company is measuring levels of oxygenation in patients after receiving a test medication. As the researcher, you are interested in whether Group I, which received the medication, has the same oxygenation levels as Group II, which did not.1) Group 1: 2,3,3,4,4,7,8,92) Group 2: 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,8Use Excel to run a t-test for two samples, assuming equal variances, with an alpha value of 0.05. Run the t-test and note:1) Are you doing a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test (Excel will give you both)?2) What is the probability that Group I is different from Group 2, using the p value? Is it significant against the benchmark of p < .05?APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubricweek 6Details:Use Excel to do a correlation between the following variables:1) X 2,5,5,6,6,7,8,92) Y 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 6Details:Use Excel to do a correlation between the following variables:1) X 2,5,5,6,6,7,8,92) Y 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 7Details:1) Use Excel to complete "Exercise 1" on page 247 (Regression Analysis) in the textbook.2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubricweek 7Details:1) Use "Roddy and Ganz Worksheets" to complete an assessment of the research studies: "Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines: A New System to Better Determine True Strength of Recommendation" by Roddy et al., and "ICU Nurses' Oral-Care Practices and the Current Best Evidence" by Ganz et al.2) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), analyze and support whether you believe that the changes recommended are statistically valid and sound enough to make practice changes in a hospital.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 7Details:1) Use Excel to complete "Exercise 7" on page 208 (ANOVA) in the textbook.2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignmentweek 8etails:1) Read and complete "Stakeholder Scenario."2) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.Stakeholder ScenarioGoal: To convince a group of people to use a specific, new type of antibiotic for patients pre-operatively in order to decrease surgical wound infections.Scenario: You are a healthcare administrator that is trying to introduce a change in practice to a group of stakeholders. Your goal is to help them understand the rationale and need for the change, and to get a sense of the areas of resistance to the change. The change under discussion is to implement a new antibiotic to be given one hour before surgery starts as a way of reducing post-op wound infections. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Studies (CMS) have indicated that timely pre-op application of specific antibiotics is becoming a requirement and will be a publicly reported indicator on the CMS Web site for your hospital. Thus, institution of this new procedure is something you really need to pull off.As the administrator in this scenario, you will hear the initial responses of each of the stakeholders. You will then be presented with several options for your response. Select the option you think is most effective. Review the stakeholders responses to the option you selected. According to their own perspectives and prerogatives, the stakeholders will respond in different ways to each choice. Your goal is to achieve some level of buy-in to the change.Issues: The antibiotic is new and people arent familiar with it. Requires administration within one hour of the actual surgery start time. Requires administration by IV. Adds a step to the busy pre-op nurses work load. Saves the hospital $28,000 per year. Research shows wound infections down 47% with this new antibiotic if it is administered in a timely fashion.Players: Pharmacist: Hes learned about the new antibiotic through his research studies, and is excited about using it. Pre-op Nurse: She is worried about having one more thing added to the pre-op activities list she must complete before the patient goes to surgery, but shes very interested in doing the right thing for her patients. Surgeon: He hates government mandates, doesnt like to be told what to do, generally has a pretty good track record for his patients outcomes after surgery, but has no idea what his actual rates of wound infection are. Finance Analyst: Its all about the money. Dont make it harder by concentrating on anything other than the dollars.Stakeholders Background ThinkingPharmacist: I really like this idea, because this antibiotic is better and cheaper too. If we can standardize to this antibiotic, I can save money by stocking only one antibiotic for surgery. It will save my staff time in preparation also. This is a great idea for me and my department.Pre-op Nurse: I am just worn out trying to keep up with all the changes they keep hitting us with. Its hard enough to do my job and remember to do things differently and use different items. Why cant they give me a break? Now Ill have to start an IV as well as give a drug, and they are already pressuring me to get the patient ready for the OR faster. Sometimes I just want to go home!! But I got into nursing to help people, and if this really makes a difference, I guess I can suck it up.Physician: The government makes me crazy! Those bureaucrats think they know how to practice medicine better than I do. The last thing I need is some ivory tower academic telling me what antibiotics to give! Ive been doing this for 30 years, and I know what works and what doesnt. The stupid hospital better shut up and let me do what I know is right and stop telling me how to be a doctor. My patients like me and that is what counts. Im sure voting Libertarian in the next election!Financial Analyst: I have been tasked to save this hospital hundreds of thousands of dollars this year, and this one change will save us a bundle. Why are they all arguing? This change could save their jobs! Dont they get that its all about the money? I wish theyd just shut up and approve the change so we could go get lunch.First Responses of Stakeholders Pharmacist: This is really important. All the research on this new antibiotic shows that it makes a big difference in reducing wound infections. We could get our rate from 13% presently down to 2%. We need to do this. Pre-op Nurse: This is going to take much more time. Weve always been able to give our patients pill antibiotics, and now you want me to have to start an IV and administer the drug that way? What happens if I give it and the surgery is delayed? There is already so much I have to do to get the patient to the OR. Surgeon: What a bunch of horse hockey! Ive been using the same antibiotic for 25 years and its fine. No need to make silly changes just to keep the government happy. What do they know about medicine anyway? All they want to do is make us follow some stupid cookbook and its ridiculous. They should just leave all that up to the doctor. Finance Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Administrators Response Options Select one:1) Well, we have to do this because its a government requirement.2) You all raise valid points of concern. The evidence shows a significant benefit to our patient care.3) What could be done in the implementation that would relieve some of your worries?Responses to Option 1Pharmacist: We can make this switch as soon as you are ready.Pre-Op Nurse: Well have to tell the patient to come in four hours before the surgery to do this. What a pain.Surgeon: The heck with this. You cant make me do it.Finance Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Responses to Option 2Pharmacist: There is a real benefit. Surgical site infections drop like crazy. Its the right thing to do.Pre-op Nurse: I want to do the right thing. If Pharmacy can get the drugs up to the unit in the morning, maybe I can start the IVs faster.Surgeon: Im all about patient care, but why cant I use what Ive always used?Financial Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Responses to Option 3Pharmacist: It would help me to know how many drug doses to stock in the OR each morning so I can make sure they have what they need on hand.Pre-op Nurse: That would sure help me. We can begin by having the IVs pre-prepared so we just have to put the needle in the patient.Surgeon: Can I see the data about wound infections? How do I stack up against other surgeons?Financial Analyst: Great, you all see it. It saves money. Lets do it.AssignmentAs is usually the case, it is possible to achieve some measures of acceptance of changes. The way you respond will affect your ability to do this. However, in real life, it rarely happens this quickly. When involved in negotiations, key elements to remember include: Pay close attention to the reasons people give for their resistance. You will gain a better insight into their thought processes and can tailor your responses to their perspectives. You may have to ask questions several times to dig into the real reasons why people may oppose something. The opposition sometimes can be driven by fears and anxieties, but those are not usually expressed initially. However, if you keep asking questions and listening carefully, they will begin to emerge. Once you have a sense of the perspectives of the various stakeholders about the change, you can begin to address them and use them to overcome any objections to the change. Sometimes the best you can get in the initial conversations is a willingness to move away from Im not gonna. to Let me see the data. Thats a big step toward willingness.Based on this initial scenario, develop an implementation plan. It should include: The administrators initial statement of what is being implemented and why. (Review the stakeholders background thinking and first responses.) The administrators (your) response option choice. How to communicate with the stakeholders (especially if they need further convincing). What evaluation criteria are needed? Time frames. Other items you think would be valuable to include.week 8Details:Write a proposal paper (1,250-1,500 words) for a major change project that you would like to lead.Identify a health care issue that interests you and explain why.Develop a rationale using evidence-based research, including:1) The background.2) Statistical findings.3) Probable stakeholders.4) Logical conclusions.Design an implementation plan for the project, including:1) A communications plan.2) Creation of a design and implementation team by roles.List the strategies you would use to lead the team to success and identify potential obstacles that may be faced, along with plans to deal with them.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment. Identify, analyze, and discuss the components that comprise a valid evidence-based research study.Based on the information compiled above, interview a health care leader about his/her experiences related to using evidence-based research to drive changes in practices in his/her facility.Write a report (1,000-1,250 words) of your findings. Include the following in your report:1) The changes that the health care leader has been involved in implementing.2) How strong did the leader feel the research on the topic was? Why?3) Have they ever rejected research findings? Why or why not?4) Include any concerns they have had or resistance they have experienced when implementing changes based on research.5) Analyze your findings as they apply to the components of evidence-based research.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.Details:1) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), compare and contrast the major elements of the reports by Coyne et al. and Messina et al., listed in the Module 2 Readings.2) Complete the "Coyne and Messina Articles Analysis." Study the information in the right-side column related to the Coyne, et al. study, which identifies the required elements as found in the reading. Complete the information for the Messina et al. article by identifying the required elements from the article.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 3Details:1) Choose a research study article of interest to you.2) Refer to the study you choose and complete "Assessing a Research Study."3) Identify an article that directly references your chosen study and compare it to your findings. Does this article refute or confirm the study's findings?4) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) that analyzes and summarizes your findings.5) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.6) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful compleweek 4Details:1) Write a paper of 1,000-1,250 words regarding the statistical significance of outcomes as presented in Messina's, et al. article "The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals."2) Assess the appropriateness of the statistics used by referring to the chart presented in the Module 4 lecture and the resource "Statistical Assessment."3) Discuss the value of statistical significance vs. pragmatic usefulness.4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.5) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 5Details:1) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) regarding the use of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient by Messina, et al. in "The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals," listed in the module readings.2) Comment on what variables were used; whether it answered the research question; and whether the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is appropriately used, given the requirements of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.wee 5Complete "Practice Exercise 11" (page 157) and "Practice Exercise 11" (page 180) in the textbook. For the data set listed, use Excel to extract the mean and standard deviation for the sample of lengths of stay for cardiac patients. Use the following Excel steps:1) Enter the data set into Excel.2) Click on the Data tab at the top.3) Highlight your data set with your mouse.4) Click on the Data Analysis tab at the top right.5) Click on Descriptive Statistics in the analysis tool list.6) Find the mean and standard deviation of the data sets.7) Send the results to instructor via e-mail, along with your analysis of the description of the data set.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 6Details:A drug company is measuring levels of oxygenation in patients after receiving a test medication. As the researcher, you are interested in whether Group I, which received the medication, has the same oxygenation levels as Group II, which did not.1) Group 1: 2,3,3,4,4,7,8,92) Group 2: 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,8Use Excel to run a t-test for two samples, assuming equal variances, with an alpha value of 0.05. Run the t-test and note:1) Are you doing a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test (Excel will give you both)?2) What is the probability that Group I is different from Group 2, using the p value? Is it significant against the benchmark of p < .05?APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubricweek 6Details:Use Excel to do a correlation between the following variables:1) X 2,5,5,6,6,7,8,92) Y 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.Use Excel to do a correlation between the following variables:1) X 2,5,5,6,6,7,8,92) Y 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 7Details:1) Use Excel to complete "Exercise 1" on page 247 (Regression Analysis) in the textbook.2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubricweek 7Details:1) Use "Roddy and Ganz Worksheets" to complete an assessment of the research studies: "Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines: A New System to Better Determine True Strength of Recommendation" by Roddy et al., and "ICU Nurses' Oral-Care Practices and the Current Best Evidence" by Ganz et al.2) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), analyze and support whether you believe that the changes recommended are statistically valid and sound enough to make practice changes in a hospital.3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.week 7Details:1) Use Excel to complete "Exercise 7" on page 208 (ANOVA) in the textbook.2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignmentweek 8etails:1) Read and complete "Stakeholder Scenario."2) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.Goal: To convince a group of people to use a specific, new type of antibiotic for patients pre-operatively in order to decrease surgical wound infections.Scenario: You are a healthcare administrator that is trying to introduce a change in practice to a group of stakeholders. Your goal is to help them understand the rationale and need for the change, and to get a sense of the areas of resistance to the change. The change under discussion is to implement a new antibiotic to be given one hour before surgery starts as a way of reducing post-op wound infections. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Studies (CMS) have indicated that timely pre-op application of specific antibiotics is becoming a requirement and will be a publicly reported indicator on the CMS Web site for your hospital. Thus, institution of this new procedure is something you really need to pull off.As the administrator in this scenario, you will hear the initial responses of each of the stakeholders. You will then be presented with several options for your response. Select the option you think is most effective. Review the stakeholders responses to the option you selected. According to their own perspectives and prerogatives, the stakeholders will respond in different ways to each choice. Your goal is to achieve some level of buy-in to the change.Issues: The antibiotic is new and people arent familiar with it. Requires administration within one hour of the actual surgery start time. Requires administration by IV. Adds a step to the busy pre-op nurses work load. Saves the hospital $28,000 per year. Research shows wound infections down 47% with this new antibiotic if it is administered in a timely fashion.Players: Pharmacist: Hes learned about the new antibiotic through his research studies, and is excited about using it. Pre-op Nurse: She is worried about having one more thing added to the pre-op activities list she must complete before the patient goes to surgery, but shes very interested in doing the right thing for her patients. Surgeon: He hates government mandates, doesnt like to be told what to do, generally has a pretty good track record for his patients outcomes after surgery, but has no idea what his actual rates of wound infection are. Finance Analyst: Its all about the money. Dont make it harder by concentrating on anything other than the dollars.Stakeholders Background ThinkingPharmacist: I really like this idea, because this antibiotic is better and cheaper too. If we can standardize to this antibiotic, I can save money by stocking only one antibiotic for surgery. It will save my staff time in preparation also. This is a great idea for me and my department.Pre-op Nurse: I am just worn out trying to keep up with all the changes they keep hitting us with. Its hard enough to do my job and remember to do things differently and use different items. Why cant they give me a break? Now Ill have to start an IV as well as give a drug, and they are already pressuring me to get the patient ready for the OR faster. Sometimes I just want to go home!! But I got into nursing to help people, and if this really makes a difference, I guess I can suck it up.Physician: The government makes me crazy! Those bureaucrats think they know how to practice medicine better than I do. The last thing I need is some ivory tower academic telling me what antibiotics to give! Ive been doing this for 30 years, and I know what works and what doesnt. The stupid hospital better shut up and let me do what I know is right and stop telling me how to be a doctor. My patients like me and that is what counts. Im sure voting Libertarian in the next election!Financial Analyst: I have been tasked to save this hospital hundreds of thousands of dollars this year, and this one change will save us a bundle. Why are they all arguing? This change could save their jobs! Dont they get that its all about the money? I wish theyd just shut up and approve the change so we could go get lunch.First Responses of Stakeholders Pharmacist: This is really important. All the research on this new antibiotic shows that it makes a big difference in reducing wound infections. We could get our rate from 13% presently down to 2%. We need to do this. Pre-op Nurse: This is going to take much more time. Weve always been able to give our patients pill antibiotics, and now you want me to have to start an IV and administer the drug that way? What happens if I give it and the surgery is delayed? There is already so much I have to do to get the patient to the OR. Surgeon: What a bunch of horse hockey! Ive been using the same antibiotic for 25 years and its fine. No need to make silly changes just to keep the government happy. What do they know about medicine anyway? All they want to do is make us follow some stupid cookbook and its ridiculous. They should just leave all that up to the doctor. Finance Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Administrators Response Options Select one:1) Well, we have to do this because its a government requirement.2) You all raise valid points of concern. The evidence shows a significant benefit to our patient care.3) What could be done in the implementation that would relieve some of your worries?Responses to Option 1Pharmacist: We can make this switch as soon as you are ready.Pre-Op Nurse: Well have to tell the patient to come in four hours before the surgery to do this. What a pain.Surgeon: The heck with this. You cant make me do it.Finance Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Responses to Option 2Pharmacist: There is a real benefit. Surgical site infections drop like crazy. Its the right thing to do.Pre-op Nurse: I want to do the right thing. If Pharmacy can get the drugs up to the unit in the morning, maybe I can start the IVs faster.Surgeon: Im all about patient care, but why cant I use what Ive always used?Financial Analyst: It saves money. Just do it.Responses to Option 3Pharmacist: It would help me to know how many drug doses to stock in the OR each morning so I can make sure they have what they need on hand.Pre-op Nurse: That would sure help me. We can begin by having the IVs pre-prepared so we just have to put the needle in the patient.Surgeon: Can I see the data about wound infections? How do I stack up against other surgeons?Financial Analyst: Great, you all see it. It saves money. Lets do it.AssignmentAs is usually the case, it is possible to achieve some measures of acceptance of changes. The way you respond will affect your ability to do this. However, in real life, it rarely happens this quickly. When involved in negotiations, key elements to remember include: Pay close attention to the reasons people give for their resistance. You will gain a better insight into their thought processes and can tailor your responses to their perspectives. You may have to ask questions several times to dig into the real reasons why people may oppose something. The opposition sometimes can be driven by fears and anxieties, but those are not usually expressed initially. However, if you keep asking questions and listening carefully, they will begin to emerge. Once you have a sense of the perspectives of the various stakeholders about the change, you can begin to address them and use them to overcome any objections to the change. Sometimes the best you can get in the initial conversations is a willingness to move away from Im not gonna. to Let me see the data. Thats a big step toward willingness.Based on this initial scenario, develop an implementation plan. It should include: The administrators initial statement of what is being implemented and why. (Review the stakeholders background thinking and first responses.) The administrators (your) response option choice. How to communicate with the stakeholders (especially if they need further convincing). What evaluation criteria are needed? Time frames. Other items you think would be valuable to include.week 8Details:Write a proposal paper (1,250-1,500 words) for a major change project that you would like to lead.Identify a health care issue that interests you and explain why.Develop a rationale using evidence-based research, including:1) The background.2) Statistical findings.3) Probable stakeholders.4) Logical conclusions.Design an implementation plan for the project, including:1) A communications plan.2) Creation of a design and implementation team by roles.List the strategies you would use to lead the team to success and identify potential obstacles that may be faced, along with plans to deal with them.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

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