QUESTION 1The ________ approach emphasizes mediating factors and sociohistorical context, among other factors, to explain individual development.individual differencespsychosocialcontemporary life-eventsseasons of lifeQUESTION 2In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:become wealthier as they age.develop careers outside the home as they age.take on more of the day-to-day chores as they age.gain respect in the community as they age. QUESTION 3In view of research on intergenerational relationships, in which way would we most expect a young adult daughter to be similar to her parents?in politicsin lifestylein gender rolesin work orientationQUESTION 4Chuck, who is in his late 50s, is less ________ than his son, who is 20 years younger.flexiblenurturingneurotichard-workingQUESTION 5According to Costa and McCraeâs study on adult personality development, the superfactor called extraversion was complex for older adults until it was divided into two sub-traits. They are:extraversion and introversion.being closed and being open.agreeableness and disagreeableness.social dominance and social vitalityAnswer: d QUESTION 6In the Gusii culture of Kenya, most middle-aged adults:experience a mild midlife crisis.do not have a clearly labeled midlife crisis.experience multiple midlife crises.experience a traumatic midlife crisis. QUESTION 7Middle adulthood for women is:a similar experience across cultures.quite dissimilar for women of different cultures.similar to middle adulthood for men across cultures.more difficult for women in nonindustrialized cultures.QUESTION 8In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the person most likely to initiate a divorce was:the wife.the husband.the wife, but only in European-American families.the husband or wife, equally.QUESTION 9According to Costa and McCraeâs study on adult personality development, in early adulthood, _________ decreases.gender role ideologyneuroticismsocial dominanceagreeableness QUESTION 10Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?It informs people how much longer they can expect to live in comparison with others in their culture.It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.It informs people how much social interaction their culture says is necessary for healthy adult development.It is a useful tool for making comparisons across different generations to see if the hypothesized developmental course is valid. QUESTION 11Which family relationships tend to be the closest in adulthood?father and sonmother and sonfather and daughtermother and daughter QUESTION 12Who tends to experience the most intergenerational stress?adolescentsyoung adultsmiddle-aged adultsolder adults QUESTION 13Stage theories of development emphasize ________, whereas the life-events approach focuses on ________.biology; experiencesimilarities; differencessocial context; genetic basisvariations in development; commonalities in developmentQUESTION 14In the metaphor of the sandwich generation, who is between the âbread slicesâ?the children of middle-aged adultsthe parents of middle-aged adultsthe middle-aged adults themselvesboth the children and parents of middle-aged adultsQUESTION 15Sandraâs mother is concerned about Sandraâs lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, âWhen I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down.â Sandra and her mother:have different social clocks.have different coping styles.have different burnout levels.are in different developmental stages.QUESTION 16The number one factor that determines whether a woman will continue to have an active sex life during middle age is:good health.time.the presence of a spouse or partner.sexual drive. QUESTION 17Laura is in her 40s. Which of the following of her abilities will decline in the next 10 years?inductive reasoningnumerical abilitiesspatial orientationverbal abilities QUESTION 18According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:meaning.spirituality.religion.faith. QUESTION 19A major health concern for middle-aged adults is:diabetes.cancer.being overweight.tooth decay.QUESTION 20People become __________ as they go through middle adulthood.fasterhappierthinnershorterQUESTION 21During middle age, the ability to hear __________ sounds declines first.lower-pitchedhigher-volumehigher-pitchedmidrange-pitched QUESTION 22Which statement best characterizes the nature of religionâs influence on Americansâ lives?The vast majority of Americans attend religious services.Religion appears to be less important to Americans than to other people around the world.The majority of Americans engage in some sort of spiritual practice.Americans attend religious services out of habit, not out of religious conviction. QUESTION 23Female menopause is more __________, whereas male menopause is more __________.psychological; physicalphysical; psychologicalpsychological; psychologicalphysical; physicalQUESTION 24Michelle is upset because she believes her memory has been getting worse since she entered middle age. She finds it harder to remember a grocery list or telephone number, although she does not have difficulty with information she uses often, such as her address or Social Security number. Which of the following is probably TRUE about Michelle?Michelle is showing signs of premature memory failure.Michelle is typical of middle-aged people in her ability to remember information.Michelle is better at remembering information than the majority of middle-aged people.Michelle is typical in her memory for frequently used information but is worse than average in her memory for lists. QUESTION 25The term __________ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.arthritissarcopeniaosteoporosismuscular dystrophy QUESTION 26Since 2004, many women and their doctors are concerned that the hormonal treatments available for menopause may have the side effect of being associated with:diabetes.stroke and breast cancer.ovarian cancer.high blood pressure. QUESTION 27Larry is a normal 45-year-old male. Which of the following is Larry most likely to be experiencing?decreased sexual drivedivorcedeclines in vision and hearingincreased metabolic rateQUESTION 28As they proceed through middle age, Tony and Martha are not having sexual relations quite as often as they did when they were younger. From what we know about sexual development in middle age, we can expect that this is because Tony and Martha:have less time and energy for sex.are not as healthy as they once were.do not find each other as attractive as before.have reduced sexual drives as a result of hormonal changes. QUESTION 29The main cause of death in middle adulthood in the United States is:cancer.accidents.heart disease.smoking-related illnesses. QUESTION 30The idea that menopause causes depression, loss of sexual desire, and psychological disturbance is:inaccurate for most women.true for most women.true for about half of all women.true only for women who have given birth. QUESTION 31In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.wisdom is associated with generativity and openness to experience.factors other than age are critical for wisdom to develop to a high level.having wisdom-enhancing mentors contributes to higher levels of wisdom. QUESTION 32Older women are more likely to have ________ but less likely to have ________ than are older men.hypertension; diabetescancer; arthritissexual dysfunction; sinus problemsvisual problems; hearing problems QUESTION 33The most influential factor in delaying brain deterioration during old age is:intellectual stimulation.nutrition.cellular garbage.exercise. QUESTION 34Rodin and Langer (1977) conducted a controlled study in which one group of nursing-home patients was given increased control over daily routines and other responsibilities and another group was not. The main finding in this study was that the increased control:improved the lives of the patients.caused debilitating anxiety in the patients.was too much for the elderly and ill patients to handle.showed the patients that they no longer needed the nursing home care.QUESTION 35The onset of physical changes in late adulthood:occurs at a similar age for most people.varies in time from person to person.is closely associated with changes in endocrine system function.occurs in a regular series of stages. QUESTION 36Selective attention is ________, whereas divided attention is ________.vigilance; focusing on a specific eventpaying attention only occasionally; constantly paying attentionfocusing on one thing; focusing on many thingspaying attention to detail; paying attention to significant events QUESTION 37Working memory is also called ________ memory.implicitshort-termlong-termsemanticQUESTION 38Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter:dopamine.serotonin.acetylcholine.enkephalin.QUESTION 39Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and stiffness in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has:arteriosclerosis.diabetes.arthritis.osteoporosis.QUESTION 40Compared with younger adults, older adults are ________ sensitive to pain.morelessequallySensitivity does not change over time. QUESTION 41Which of the following is TRUE concerning nutrition?Thin people are as likely as heavy people to develop cardiovascular disease.Food restriction in laboratory animals has been shown to increase their life spans.Most experts recommend eating an extremely low calorie diet for maximum longevity.Vitamin E reduced heart disease among Finnish men who were heavy smokers. QUESTION 42Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the ________ theory of aging.telomerase-injectioncellular clockfree-radicalhormonal stress QUESTION 43 What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?both affect men at much higher rates than womenboth are chronic and progressiveboth affect only the elderlyboth are easily managed with medication QUESTION 44Martha is afraid that she will develop some sort of mental disorder when she gets very old. How realistic is her fear?realistic, because the majority of older adults develop a mental disorderunrealistic, because mental disorder is the exception for older adultsrealistic, because a significant number of older adults will develop some type of mental disorderunrealistic, because mental disorder in older adults tend to be only minor problems QUESTION 45Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men and women?higher versus lower rates of emphysemaexistence versus absence of sleep disordersexistence versus absence of an X chromosomeexistence versus absence of a reasoned, practical life view QUESTION 46Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:explicit and semantic memory.episodic and implicit memory.working memory and perceptual speed.procedural and working memory.QUESTION 47The idea of very old adults having no sex life is:true, because sexual interest is mostly lost by age 70 years.true, because of physical impairments to having intercourse.not true, because sexual sensitivity continues to increase with age.not true, because sexual ability is usually maintained throughout life. QUESTION 48Which of the following is NOT one of the brain imaging techniques that is used in cognitive neuroscience to examine the activity of the brain during certain cognitive activities?fMRIPET scansCT scansDTI QUESTION 49What percentage of women over 85 years of age has dementia?8162339 QUESTION 50Dr. Lone Dove has begun studying the effects of a newly discovered hormone on aging. He hypothesizes that the new hormone protects the bodyâs cells from deterioration by strengthening the cell wall against detrimental substances. Dr. Lone Dove is finding evidence for the ________ theory of aging.telomerecellular clockhormonal stressfree-radical
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